1887

Abstract

The chonotrichs are sessile ciliated protozoa that are ectosymbiotic on the body parts of a variety of crustaceans. They have long been considered a separate group because their sessile habit has resulted in the evolution of a very divergent body form and reproductive strategy compared to free-living ciliates. In the mid-20th Century, the free-living dysteriid cyrtophorian ciliates were proposed as a potential sister clade because the chonotrich bud or daughter cell showed similarities during division morphogenesis (i.e. ontogeny) to these free-living dysteriids. A single small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence is available for the chonotrich Isochona sp. However, its authenticity has recently been questioned, and the placement of this sequence within the dysteriid clade has added to this controversy. In this report, the SSUrRNA gene sequence of the chonotrich Chilodochona carcini, ectosymbiotic on the green crab Carcinus maenas, is provided. Topology testing of the SSUrRNA gene phylogeny, constructed by Bayesian Inference, robustly supports the sister-group relationship of Isochona sp. and Chilodochona carcini, the monophyly of these two chonotrichs, and the divergence of the chonotrich clade within the dysteriid clade.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.001127
2016-08-01
2019-10-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/66/8/2959.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.001127&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adl S. M. , Simpson A. G. , Lane C. E. , Lukeš J. , Bass D. , Bowser S. S. , Brown M. W. , Burki F. , Dunthorn M. et al. ( 2012;). The revised classification of eukaryotes. . J Eukaryot Microbiol 59: 429–493. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Batisse A. . ( 1994;). Sous-classe des Chonotrichia Wallengren 1985. . In Traité De Zoologie, Infusoires Ciliés, , vol. 2., pp. 433–473. Edited by De Puytorac P. . Paris:: Masson;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bourland W. A. , Strüder-Kypke M. C. . ( 2010;). Agolohymena aspidocauda nov. gen., nov. spec., a histophagous freshwater tetrahymenid ciliate in the family Deltopylidae (Ciliophora, Hymenostomatia), from Idaho (northwest USA): morphology, ontogenesis and molecular phylogeny. . Eur J Protistol 46: 221–242. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Corliss J. O. . ( 1979;). The Ciliated Protozoa: Characterization, Classification, and Guide to the Literature, , 2nd edn., p. 455. London and New York:: Pergamon Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Darriba D. , Taboada G. L. , Doallo R. , Posada D. . ( 2012;). jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. . Nat Methods 9: 772. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dobrozańska-Kaczanowska J. . ( 1963;). Comparaison de la morphogenèse des ciliés: Chilodonella uncinata (Ehrbg)Allosphaerium Paraconvexa sp. n. et Heliochona Scheuteni (Stein). . Acta Protozool 1: 353–394.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fahrni J. . ( 1982;). Morphologie et Ultrastructure de Spirochona gemmipara Stein , 1852 (Ciliophora, Chonotrichida). I. Structures Corticales et Buccales de I'Adulte1. . J Protozool 29: 170–184. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fahrni J. . ( 1984;). Morphologie et ultrastructure de Spirochona gemmipara Stein, 1852 (Ciliophora, Chonotrichida). III. Appareil de Fixation chez la Larve et chez l'Adulte1. . J Protozool 31: 221–232. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fauré-Fremiet E. , Rouiller C. , Gauchery M. . ( 1956;). Structure et origine du pédoncule chez Chilodochona . . J Protozool 3: 188–193.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fauré-Fremiet E. , André J. , Ganier M.-C. . ( 1968;). Structure fine de l'organite fixateur des Dysteriidae (Ciliata Cyrtophorina). . Compt Rend Acad Sci 267: 954–957.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gao S. , Huang J. , Li J. , Song W. . ( 2012;). Molecular phylogeny of the cyrtophorid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea). . PLoS One 7: e33198. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gentekaki E. , Lynn D. . ( 2012;). Spatial genetic variation, phylogeography and barcoding of the peritrichous ciliate Carchesium polypinum . . Eur J Protistol 48: 305–313. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Grain J. , Batisse A. . ( 1974;). Étude ultrastructurale du cilié chonotriche Chilodochona quennerstedti Wallengren, 1895 Cortex et structures buccales. . J Protozool 21: 95–111.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Guilcher Y. . ( 1951;). Contribution a l'étude des ciliés gemmipares, chonotriches et tentaculifères. . Ann Sci Nat Zool (Sér 11) 13: 33–132.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Guindon S. , Gascuel O. . ( 2003;). A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. . Syst Biol 52: 696–704.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Huelsenbeck J. P. , Ronquist F. . ( 2001;). MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. . Bioinformatics 17: 754–755. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Irwin N. A. , Lynn D. H. . ( 2015;). Molecular Phylogeny of mobilid and sessilid ciliates Symbiotic in eastern pacific limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda). . J Eukaryot Microbiol 62: 543–552. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Jankowski A. W. . ( 1973;). No. 1. Akad. . Fauna of the USSR: Infusoria Subclass Chonotricha,vol. 2pp. 355. Edited by Leningrad:: Nauk SSSR, Nauka;.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jankowski A. W. . ( 2007;). Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901. . In Protista, , Part 2., pp. 415–993. Edited by Alimov A. F. . St. Petersburg:: Nauka;.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kearse M. , Moir R. , Wilson A. , Stones-Havas S. , Cheung M. , Sturrock S. , Buxton S. , Cooper A. , Markowitz S. et al. ( 2012;). Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. . Bioinformatics 28: 1647–1649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kishino H. , Hasegawa M. . ( 1989;). Evaluation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the evolutionary tree topologies from DNA sequence data, and the branching order in hominoidea. . J Mol Evol 29: 170–179.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ludwig W. , Strunk O. , Westram R. , Richter L. , Meier H. , Kumar Y. , Buchner A. , Lai T. , Steppi S. et al. ( 2004;). ARB: a software environment for sequence data. . Nucleic Acids Res 32: 1363–1371. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lynn D. H. . ( 2008;). The Ciliated Protozoa: Characterization, Classification, and Guide to the Literature, , 3rd edn.. Berlin:: Springer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lynn D. H. , Gómez-Gutiérrez J. , Strüder-Kypke M. C. , Shaw C. T. . ( 2014;). Ciliate species diversity and host-parasitoid codiversification in Pseudocollinia infecting krill, with description of Pseudocollinia similis sp. nov. . Dis Aquat Organ 112: 89–102. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Medlin L. , Elwood H. J. , Stickel S. , Sogin M. L. . ( 1988;). The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. . Gene 71: 491–499. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pan H. B. , Lin X. F. , Gong J. , Al-Rasheid K. A. S. , Song W. B. . ( 2012;). Taxonomy of five species of cyrtophorids (Protozoa: Ciliophora) including consideration of the phylogeny of two new genera. . Zool J Linn Soc 164: 1–17.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Qu Z. , Wang C. , Gao F. , Li J. , Al-Rasheid K. A. , Hu X. . ( 2015;). Taxonomic studies on seven species of Dysteria (Ciliophora, Cyrtophoria), including a description of Dysteria paraprocera sp. n. . Eur J Protistol 51: 241–258. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ronquist F. , Huelsenbeck J. P. . ( 2003;). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. . Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Shimodaira H. , Hasegawa M. . ( 2001;). CONSEL: for assessing the confidence of phylogenetic tree selection. . Bioinformatics 17: 1246–1247. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Shimodaira H. . ( 2002;). An approximately unbiased test of phylogenetic tree selection. . Syst Biol 51: 492–508. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Snoeyenbos-West O. L. , Cole J. , Campbell A. , Coats D. W. , Katz L. A. . ( 2004;). Molecular phylogeny of phyllopharyngean ciliates and their group I introns. . J Eukaryot Microbiol 51: 441–450.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Taylor D. M. , Lynn D. H. , Gransden S. . ( 1995;). Vasichona opiliophila n. sp an ectosymbiotic ciliate (Chonotrichia; Exogemmida) on the maxillae of the snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio . . Can J Zool 73: 166–172.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Zhao X. , Miao M. , Chen X. , Ma H. , Al-Rasheid K. A. S. . ( 2014;). A phylogenetic reconsideration of suctorian ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea) based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences. . Zool Scr 43: 206–216.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.001127
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.001127
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary File 1



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error