1887

Abstract

Creeping thistle [ arvense (L.) Scop.] and dahlia ( sp.) plants showing typical symptoms of phytoplasma infection including yellowing, stunting, inflorescence and proliferation, were sampled; the presence of phytoplasma was confirmed by standard PCR using universal primers. RFLP analysis allowed classification of the detected phytoplasma strains CirYS, CirYS1 and DahlP within the 16SrXI group, the unique restriction profile F2nR2 fragment obtained by iClassifier indicated that they belong to the new 16SrXI-E subgroup. Genetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the studied strains shared less than 97.5 % similarity with all of the previously described ‘ Phytoplasma’ species. The closest relatives are ‘ Phytoplasma cynodontis’ and ‘ Phytoplasma oryzae’ with 96.8 % and 96.6 % similarity. All strains studied bear three specific regions in the 16S rRNA gene, discriminating them from the other phytoplasma species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and genes confirmed this specificity, as the creeping thistle and dahlia phytoplasma strains clustered in a distinguishable lineage group. The uniqueness of the genetic analysis agrees with the biological characterization of the studied phytoplasma strains, their host range, and geographical distribution. The strains only infect dicotyledonous plants in Europe, contrary to their closest relatives. Based on their unique properties, it could be concluded that the studied phytoplasma strains represent a discrete group that is proposed as a novel taxon ‘ Phytoplasma cirsii’, with strain CirYS as a reference strain.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.000937
2016-04-01
2022-01-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/66/4/1745.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.000937&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahrens U., Seemüller E. 1992; Detection of DNA of plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms by a polymerase chain reaction that amplifies a sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Phytopathology 82:828–832 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Al-Saady N. A., Khan A. J., Calari A., Al-Subhi A. M., Bertaccini A. 2008; Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense’, associated with witches'-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:461–466 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Arocha Y., López M., Piñol B., Fernández M., Picornell B., Almeida R., Palenzuela I., Wilson M. R., Jones P. 2005; Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae’, two novel phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane, weeds and papaya in Cuba. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:2451–2463 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arocha Y., Antesana O., Montellano E., Franco P., Plata G., Jones P. 2007; Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici’, a phytoplasma associated with ‘hoja de perejil’ disease in Bolivia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1704–1710 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Behrens R., Elakkad M. A. 1981; Canada thistle interference in crops. Canada Thistle Symposium. Proceedings of North Central Weed Conference 1981 36 pp 167–169
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bertaccini A. 2007; Phytoplasmas: diversity, taxonomy, and epidemiology. Front Biosci 12:673–689 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Contaldo N., Bertaccini A., Paltrinieri S., Windsor H. M., Windsor G. D. 2012; Axenic culture of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas. Phytopathol Mediterr 51:607–617
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Credi R., Terlizzi F., Milanesi L., Bondavalli R., Cavallini G., Montermini A., Dradi D. 2002; Wild host plants of stolbur phytoplasma and its vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, at sites of grapevine Bois noir occurrence in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. 15th Meeting ICVG, Stellenbosch, South Africa pp 182–183
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Davis R. E., Dally E. L., Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M., Habili N. 1997; Candidatus phytoplasma australiense”, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:262–269 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Davis R. E., Zhao Y., Dally E. L., Jomantiene R., Lee I.-M., Wei W., Kitajima E. W. 2012; Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum’, a novel taxon, and strain PassWB-Br4, a new subgroup 16SrIII-V phytoplasma, from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:984–989 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Davis R. E., Zhao Y., Dally E. L., Lee I.-M., Jomantiene R., Douglas S. M. 2013; Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’, a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:766–776 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Deng S., Hiruki C. 1991; Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and non-culturable Mollicutes. J Microbiol Methods 14:53–61 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fialová R., Válová P., Balakishiyeva G., Danet J.-L., Šafárová D., Foissac X., Navrátil M. 2009; Genetic variability of stolbur phytoplasma in annual and wild plant species in South Moravia. J Plant Pathol 91:411–416
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Griffiths H. M., Sinclair W. A., Smart C. D., Davis R. E. 1999; The phytoplasma associated with ash yellows and lilac witches'-broom: ‘Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49:1605–1614 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Harrison N. A., Davis R. E., Oropeza C., Helmick E. E., Narváez M., Eden-Green S., Dollet M., Dickinson M. 2014; Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola’, associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:1890–1899 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hiruki C., Wang K. 2004; Clover proliferation phytoplasma: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1349–1353 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hodgetts J., Boonham N., Mumford R., Harrison N., Dickinson M. 2008; Phytoplasma phylogenetics based on analysis of secA and 23S rRNA gene sequences for improved resolution of candidate species of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:1826–1837 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team–Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group 2004; Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1243–1255 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jakovljević M., Jović J., Mitrović M., Krstić O., Kosovac A., Toševski I., Cvrković T. 2015; Euscelis incisus (Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae), a natural vector of 16SrIII-B phytoplasma causing multiple inflorescence disease of Cirsium arvense . Ann Appl Biol 167:406–419 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jomantiene R., Valiunas D., Alminaite A., Davis R. E., Staniulis J. 2000; Clover phyllody and Cirsium yellows phytoplasmas: strain diversity or species divergence. Phytopathology 90:S39 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jomantiene R., Davis R. E., Valiunas D., Alminaite A. 2002; New group 16SrIII lineages in Lithuania exhibit rRNA interoperon sequence heterogeneity. Eur J Plant Pathol 108:507–517 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jung H.-Y., Sawayanagi T., Kakizawa S., Nishigawa H., Miyata S., Oshima K., Ugaki M., Lee J. T., Hibi T., Namba S. 2002; Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches' broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1543–1549[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jung H.-Y., Sawayanagi T., Kakizawa S., Nishigawa H., Wei W., Oshima K., Miyata S., Ugaki M., Hibi T., Namba S. 2003a; Candidatus phytoplasma ziziphi’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with jujube witches'-broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1037–1041 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jung H.-Y., Sawayanagi T., Wongkaew P., Kakizawa S., Nishigawa H., Wei W., Oshima K., Miyata S., Ugaki M., other authors. 2003b; Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae”, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1925–1929 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kamińska M., śliwa H. 2008; Mixed infection of dahlia plants in Poland with apple proliferation and aster yellows phytoplasmas. Plant Pathol 57:363 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lee I.-M., Bertaccini A., Vibio M., Gundersen D. E. 1995; Detection of multiple phytoplasmas in perennial fruit trees with decline symptoms in Italy. Phytopathology 85:728–735 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lee I.-M., Gundersen-Rindal D. E., Davis R. E., Bartoszyk I. M. 1998; Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:1153–1169 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lee I.-M., Gundersen-Rindal D. E., Davis R. E., Bottner K. D., Marcone C., Seemüller E. 2004a; Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with aster yellows and related diseases. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1037–1048 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lee I.-M., Martini M., Marcone C., Zhu S. F. 2004b; Classification of phytoplasma strains in the elm yellows group (16SrV) and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ for the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:337–347 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lee I.-M., Bottner K. D., Secor G., Rivera-Varas V. 2006; Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum’, a phytoplasma associated with a potato purple top wilt disease complex. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:1593–1597 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lee I.-M., Bottner-Parker K. D., Zhao Y., Villalobos W., Moreira L. 2011; Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum’ a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging disease in soybean (Glycine max). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:2822–2826 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lorenz K. H., Schneider B., Ahrens U., Seemüller E. 1995; Detection of the apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas by PCR amplification of ribosomal and nonribosomal DNA. Phytopathology 85:771–776 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Makarova O., Contaldo N., Paltrinieri S., Kawube G., Bertaccini A., Nicolaisen M. 2012; DNA barcoding for identification of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasmas’ using a fragment of the elongation factor Tu gene. PLoS One 7:e52092 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Malembic-Maher S., Salar P., Filippin L., Carle P., Angelini E., Foissac X. 2011; Genetic diversity of European phytoplasmas of the 16SrV taxonomic group and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:2129–2134 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Marcone C., Ragozzino A., Seemüller E. 1997; Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in yellows-diseased weeds in Italy. Plant Pathol 46:530–537 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Marcone C., Gibb K. S., Streten C., Schneider B. 2004a; Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae’, respectively associated with spartium witches'-broom, buckthorn witches'-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1025–1029 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Marcone C., Schneider B., Seemüller E. 2004b; Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’, the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1077–1082 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Martini M., Marcone C., Mitrović J., Maixner M., Delić D., Myrta A., Ermacora P., Bertaccini A., Duduk B. 2012; Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with bindweed yellows in four European countries. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:2910–2915 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Marzachı` C., Alma A., d'Aquilio M., Minuto G., Boccardo G. 1999; Detection and identification of phytoplasmas infecting cultivated and wild plants in Liguria (Italian riviera). J Plant Pathol 81:127–136
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Montano H. G., Davis R. E., Dally E. L., Hogenhout S., Pimentel J. P., Brioso P. S. T. 2001; Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches' broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1109–1118 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Nejat N., Vadamalai G., Davis R. E., Harrison N. A., Sijam K., Dickinson M., Abdullah S. N. A., Zhao Y. 2013; Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum’, a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:540–548 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Quaglino F., Zhao Y., Casati P., Bulgari D., Bianco P. A., Wei W., Davis R. E. 2013; Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:2879–2894 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Rančić D., Paltrinieri S., Toševski I., Petanović R., Stevanović B., Bertaccini A. 2005; First report of multiple inflorescence disease of Cirsium arvense and its association with a 16SrIII-B subgroup phytoplasma in Serbia. Plant Pathol 54:561 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sawayanagi T., Horikoshi N., Kanehira T., Shinohara M., Bertaccini A., Cousin M. T., Hiruki C., Namba S. 1999; Candidatus phytoplasma japonicum’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Japanese Hydrangea phyllody. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49:1275–1285 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Schneider B., Marcone C., Kampmann M., Ragozzino A., Lederer W., Cousin M.-T., Seemüller E. 1997; Characterization and classification of phytoplasmas from wild and cultivated plants by RFLP and sequence analysis of ribosomal DNA. Eur J Plant Pathol 103:675–686 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Schneider B., Torres E., Martín M. P., Schröder M., Behnke H. D., Seemüller E. 2005; Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’, a novel taxon from Pinus silvestris and Pinus halepensis . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:303–307 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Seemüller E., Schneider B. 2004; Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1217–1226 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Seemüller E., Marcone C., Lauer U., Ragozzino A., Göschl M. 1998; Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. J Plant Pathol 80:3–26
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S. 2013; MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Tiley G. E. D. 2010; Biological flora of the British Isles: Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. J Ecol 98:938–983 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Tran-Nguyen L. T. T., Kube M., Schneider B., Reinhardt R., Gibb K. S. 2008; Comparative genome analysis of “Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense” (subgroup tuf-Australia I; rp-A) and “Ca. Phytoplasma asteris” Strains OY-M and AY-WB. J Bacteriol 190:3979–3991 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Valiunas D., Staniulis J., Davis R. E. 2006; Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon discovered in yellows diseased strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:277–281 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Verdin E., Salar P., Danet J.-L., Choueiri E., Jreijiri F., El Zammar S., Gélie B., Bové J. M., Garnier M. 2003; Candidatus phytoplasma phoenicium’ sp. nov., a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging lethal disease of almond trees in Lebanon and Iran. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:833–838 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Wei W., Davis R. E., Lee I.-M., Zhao Y. 2007; Computer-simulated RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes: identification of ten new phytoplasma groups. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1855–1867 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. White D. T., Blackall L. L., Scott P. T., Walsh K. B. 1998; Phylogenetic positions of phytoplasmas associated with dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic diseases of papaya, and their proposed inclusion in ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ and a new taxon, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:941–951 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Win N. K. K., Lee S.-Y., Bertaccini A., Namba S., Jung H.-Y. 2013; Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae’ associated with witches' broom disease of Balanites triflora . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:636–640 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Zhao Y., Sun Q., Wei W., Davis R. E., Wu W., Liu Q. 2009a; Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis’, a novel taxon discovered in witches'-broom-diseased salt cedar (Tamarix chinensis Lour.). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:2496–2504 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Zhao Y., Wei W., Lee I.-M., Shao J., Suo X., Davis R. E. 2009b; Construction of an interactive online phytoplasma classification tool, iPhyClassifier, and its application in analysis of the peach X-disease phytoplasma group (16SrIII). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:2582–2593 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Zreik L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Garnier M. 1995; Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches'-broom disease of lime and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, “Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia”. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:449–453 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.000937
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.000937
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary Data

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error