A Gram-negative, short rod-shaped bacterium, strain GA2-M15, was isolated from a sea-sand sample at Homi Cape, Pohang city, Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this isolate was unique, showing 95.9 % sequence similarity to the type strain of and similarities of 94.0–95.2 % to the type strains of species of the genera (94.4–95.2 %), (94.0–94.4 %) and (94.0–94.7 %). Chemotaxonomic characteristics (diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine as the major polar lipids and C 7 as the predominant fatty acid) and DNA G+C content (56 mol%) were also similar to those of . 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, physiological properties and some fatty acid components showed that strain GA2-M15 could be differentiated from . On the basis of these results, strain GA2-M15 is considered to represent a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GA2-M15 (=KACC 12675 =DSM 19593).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Adachi, M., Kanno, T., Okamoto, R., Shinozaki, A., Fujikawa-Adachi, K. & Nishijima, T.(2004).Jannaschia cystaugens sp. nov., an Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) cyst formation-promoting bacterium from Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1687–1692.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Baumann, P. & Baumann, L.(1981). The marine Gram-negative eubacteria: genera Photobacterium, Beneckea, Alteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Alcaligenes. In The Prokaryotes, pp. 1302–1330. Edited by M. P. Starr, H. Stolp, H. G. Trüper, A. Balows & H. G. Schlegel. Berlin: Springer.
  3. Breznak, J. A. & Costilow, R. N.(1994). Physicochemical factors in growth. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 137–154. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  4. Felsenstein, J.(1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Fitch, W. M.(1971). Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific tree topology. Syst Zool 20, 406–416.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Hiraishi, A., Nagashima, K. V. P., Matsuura, K., Shimada, K., Takaichi, S., Wakao, N. & Katayama, Y.(1998). Phylogeny and photosynthetic features of Thiobacillus acidophilus and related acidophilic bacteria: its transfer to the genus Acidiphilium as Acidiphilium acidophilum comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 1389–1398.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Kimura, M.(1983).The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. Kroppenstedt, R. M.(1985). Fatty acid and menaquinone analysis of actinomycetes and related organisms. In Chemical Methods in Bacterial Systematics (SAB Technical Series no. 20), pp. 173–199. Edited by M. Goodfellow & D. E. Minnikin. London: Academic Press.
  9. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M.(2004).mega3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5, 150–163.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Kwon, S. W., Kim, J. S., Park, I. C., Yoon, S. H., Park, D. H., Lim, C. K. & Go, S. J.(2003).Pseudomonas koreensis sp. nov., Pseudomonas umsongensis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas jinjuensis sp. nov., novel species from farm soils in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 21–27.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Lafay, B., Ruimy, R., Rausch de Traubenberg, C., Breittmayer, V., Gauthier, M. J. & Christen, R.(1995).Roseobacter algicola sp. nov., a new marine bacterium isolated from the phycosphere of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 290–296.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Macián, M. C., Arahal, D. R., Garay, E., Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K. H. & Pujalte, M. J.(2005).Thalassobacter stenotrophicus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine α-proteobacterium isolated from Mediterranean sea water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 105–110.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Mesbah, M., Premachandran, U. & Whitman, W. B.(1989). Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 159–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Minnikin, D. E., O'Donnell, A. G., Goodfellow, M., Alderson, G., Athalye, M., Schaal, A. & Parlett, J. H.(1984). An integrated procedure for the extraction of bacterial isoprenoid quinones and polar lipids. J Microbiol Methods 2, 233–241.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Pujalte, M. J., Macián, M. C., Arahal, D. R. & Garay, E.(2005).Thalassobacter stenotrophicus Macián et al. 2005 is a later synonym of Jannaschia cystaugens Adachi et al. 2004, with emended description of the genus Thalassobacter. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 1959–1963.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  17. Sasser, M.(1990).Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids, MIDI Technical Note 101. Newark, DE: MIDI Inc.
  18. Smibert, R. M. & Krieg, N. R.(1994). Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 607–654. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  19. Takaichi, S., Furihata, K., Ishidu, J. & Shimada, K.(1991). Carotenoid sulphates from the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter longus. Phytochemistry 30, 3411–3415.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


Transmission electron micrograph of a cell of strain GA2-M15 , showing polar flagella. Bar, 500 nm.


Polar lipid profiles of strain GA2-M15 and DSM 16310 after separation by two-dimensional TLC. [PDF](37 KB)

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error