1887

Abstract

Recently, a novel ehrlichial organism was isolated from a raccoon () and the isolate (RAC413) was infectious to two naïve raccoons but not laboratory mice, rats or rabbits. In this study, amplification and sequencing of four gene targets (16S rRNA gene, , and ) confirmed that the novel ehrlichial organism was a member of the family and was most closely related to, but distinct from, ‘ Neoehrlichia mikurensis’ TK4456 and IS58. RAC413 shared the highest sequence similarity with members of the genus (94.2–95.1, 80.9–83.1, 67.9–71.9 and 39.9–40.7 % similarity for the 16S rRNA gene, , and , respectively). No sequence variation in three sequences (16S rRNA gene, and ) was observed between the RAC413 isolate and five additional sequences amplified from blood of naturally infected raccoons from several geographically isolated populations in the south-eastern USA. Serum samples from four experimentally infected raccoons did not react to , , or antigens in an immunofluorescence assay or an peptide in an ELISA format. On the basis of the distinctive molecular and serological characteristics and apparent host specificity of this ehrlichial organism, it is proposed that this organism be designated ‘ Neoehrlichia lotoris’ (reference strain RAC413).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.65836-0
2008-12-01
2020-01-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/58/12/2794.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.65836-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alekseev, A. N., Dubinina, H. V., Van De Pol, I. & Schouls, L. M. ( 2001; ). Identification of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ticks in the Baltic regions of Russia. J Clin Microbiol 39, 2237–2242.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beninati, T., Piccolo, G., Rizzoli, A., Genchi, C. & Bandi, C. ( 2006; ). Anaplasmataceae in wild rodents and roe deer from Trento Province (northern Italy). Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25, 677–678.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brouqui, P., Sanogo, Y. O., Caruso, G., Merola, F. & Raoult, D. ( 2003; ). Candidatus Ehrlichia walkerii: a new Ehrlichia detected in Ixodes ricinus tick collected from asymptomatic humans in Northern Italy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990, 134–140.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Comer, J. A., Nicholson, W. L., Paddock, C. D., Sumner, J. W. & Childs, J. E. ( 2000; ). Detection of antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia chaffeensis in the raccoon. J Wildl Dis 36, 705–712.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dugan, V. G., Gaydos, J. K., Stallknecht, D. E., Little, S. E., Beall, A. D., Mead, D. G., Hurd, C. C. & Davidson, W. R. ( 2005; ). Detection of Ehrlichia spp. in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Georgia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5, 162–171.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dumler, J. S., Barbet, A. F., Bekker, C. P., Dasch, G. A., Palmer, G. H., Ray, S. C., Rikihisa, Y. & Rurangirwa, F. R. ( 2001; ). Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and ‘HGE agent’ as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 2145–2165.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Friedman, C. S., Andree, K. B., Beauchamp, K. A., Moore, J. D., Robbins, T. T., Shields, J. D. & Hedrick, R. P. ( 2000; ).Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis’, a newly described pathogen of abalone, Haliotis spp., along the west coast of North America. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 847–855.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Inokuma, H., Brouqui, P., Drancourt, M. & Raoult, D. ( 2001; ). Citrate synthase gene sequence: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis and identification of Ehrlichia. J Clin Microbiol 39, 3031–3039.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kawahara, M., Rikihisa, Y., Isogai, E., Takahashi, M., Misumi, H., Suto, C., Shibata, S., Zhang, C. & Tsuji, M. ( 2004; ). Ultrastructure and phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis’ in the family Anaplasmataceae, isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1837–1843.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Little, S. E., Stallknecht, D. E., Lockhart, J. M., Dawson, J. E. & Davidson, W. R. ( 1998; ). Natural coinfection of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations with three Ehrlichia spp. J Parasitol 84, 897–901.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Munderloh, U. G., Yabsley, M. J., Murphy, S. M., Luttrell, M. P. & Howerth, E. W. ( 2007; ). Isolation and establishment of the raccoon Ehrlichia-like agent in tick cell culture. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7, 418–425.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Naitou, H., Kawaguchi, D., Hishimura, Y., Inayoshi, M., Kawamori, F., Masuzawa, T., Hiroi, M., Kurashige, H., Kawabata, H. & other authors ( 2006; ). Molecular identification of Ehrlichia species and ‘Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis’ from ticks and wild rodents in Shizuoka and Nagano Prefectures, Japan. Microbiol Immunol 50, 45–51.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Pan, H., Liu, S., Ma, Y., Tong, S. & Sun, Y. ( 2003; ). Ehrlichia-like organism gene found in small mammals in the suburban district of Guangzhou of China. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990, 107–111.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Rar, V. A., Livanova, N. N., Panov, V. V., Kozlova, I. V., Pukhovskaya, N. M., Vysochina, N. P., Tkachev, S. E. & Ivanov, L. I. ( 2008; ). Prevalence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in Ixodes persulcatus ticks and small mammals from different regions of the Asian part of Russia. Int J Med Microbiol 298 (Suppl. 1), 222–230.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Rikihisa, Y. ( 1991; ). Cross-reacting antigens between Neorickettsia helminthoeca and Ehrlichia species, shown by immunofluorescence and western immunoblotting. J Clin Microbiol 29, 2024–2029.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Rikihisa, Y., Zhang, C. & Christensen, B. M. ( 2003; ). Molecular characterization of Aegyptianella pullorum (Rickettsiales, Anaplasmataceae). J Clin Microbiol 41, 5294–5297.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Sanogo, Y. O., Parola, P., Shpynov, S., Camicas, J. L., Brouqui, P., Caruso, G. & Raoult, D. ( 2003; ). Genetic diversity of bacterial agents detected in ticks removed from asymptomatic patients in northeastern Italy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990, 182–190.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Schouls, L. M., Van De Pol, I., Rijpkema, S. G. & Schot, C. S. ( 1999; ). Detection and identification of Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Bartonella species in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ticks. J Clin Microbiol 37, 2215–2222.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Tabara, K., Arai, S., Kawabuchi, T., Itagaki, A., Ishihara, C., Satoh, H., Okabe, N. & Tsuji, M. ( 2007; ). Molecular survey of Babesia microti, Ehrlichia species and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in wild rodents from Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Microbiol Immunol 51, 359–367.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Taillardat-Bisch, A. V., Raoult, D. & Drancourt, M. ( 2003; ). RNA polymerase β-subunit-based phylogeny of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Neorickettsia spp. and Wolbachia pipientis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 455–458.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Yabsley, M. J., Dugan, V. G., Stallknecht, D. E., Little, S. E., Lockhart, J. M., Dawson, J. E. & Davidson, W. R. ( 2003; ). Evaluation of a prototype Ehrlichia chaffeensis surveillance system using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as natural sentinels. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 3, 195–207.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Yabsley, M. J., Murphy, S. M., Luttrell, M. P., Wilcox, B. R. & Ruckdeschel, C. ( 2008a; ). Raccoons (Procyon lotor), but not rodents, are natural and experimental hosts for an ehrlichial organism related to “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”. Vet Microbiol 131, 301–308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Yabsley, M. J., Murphy, S. M., Luttrell, M. P., Little, S. E., Massung, R. F., Stallknecht, D. E., Conti, L. A., Blackmore, C. G. M. & Durden, L. A. ( 2008b; ). Experimental and field studies on the suitability of raccoons (Procyon lotor) as hosts for tick-borne pathogens. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8, 491–504.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.65836-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.65836-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 12, pp. 2794 - 2798

GenBank accession numbers used in similarity matrices and phylogenetic analyses.

Similarity matrices for 16S rRNA gene (Table S2), (Table S3) and (Table S4) sequences of ' Neoehrlichia lotoris' and selected organisms.

[PDF file of Supplementary Tables](23 KB)



PDF

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error