An aerobic, yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain BD-b365, was isolated from sediment of the Hakjang stream in Busan, South Korea. Growth was observed at 15–40 °C (optimum 20–30 °C) and at pH 6.0–9.5 (optimum pH 7.0–8.0). Cells were non-spore-forming rods that showed gliding motility and contained branched and hydroxy fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.4 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The major polar lipid of strain BD-b365 was phosphatidylethanolamine. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain BD-b365 formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus . Based on levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the novel strain was related most closely to WB 1.1-56, but the level of DNA–DNA relatedness between these two strains was only 9.6 %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, it is clear that strain BD-b365 represents a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BD-b365 (=KCTC 22078 =DSM 19382).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Aslam, Z., Im, W. T., Kim, M. K. & Lee, S. T.(2005).Flavobacterium granuli sp. nov., isolated from granules used in a wastewater treatment plant. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 747–751.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Bernardet, J.-F., Segers, P., Vancanneyt, M., Berthe, F., Kersters, K. & Vandamme, P.(1996). Cutting a Gordian knot: emended classification and description of the genus Flavobacterium, emended description of the family Flavobacteriaceae, and proposal of Flavobacterium hydatis nom. nov. (basonym, Cytophaga aquatilis Strohl and Tait 1978). Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 128–148.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Bernardet, J. F., Nakagawa, Y. & Holmes, B.(2002). Proposed minimal standards for describing new taxa of the family Flavobacteriaceae and emended description of the family. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1049–1070.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Chun, J., Lee, J. H., Jung, Y., Kim, M., Kim, S., Kim, B. K. & Lim, Y. W.(2007). EzTaxon: a web-based tool for the identification of prokaryotes based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2259–2261.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Cole, J. R., Chai, B., Marsh, T. L., Farris, R. J., Wang, Q., Kulam, S. A., Chandra, S., McGarrell, D. M., Schmidt, T. M. & other authors(2003). The ribosomal database project (RDP-II): previewing a new autoaligner that allows regular updates and the new prokaryotic taxonomy. Nucleic Acids Res 31, 442–443.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Cousin, S., Pauker, O. & Stackebrandt, E.(2007).Flavobacterium aquidurense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium hercynium sp. nov., from a hard-water creek. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 243–249.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Ezaki, T., Hashimoto, Y. & Yabuuchi, E.(1989). Fluorometric deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization in microdilution wells as an alternative to membrane filter hybridization in which radioisotopes are used to determine genetic relatedness among bacterial strains. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 224–229.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Felsenstein, J.(2002).phylip (phylogeny inference package), version 3.6a. Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
  9. Gomori, G.(1955). Preparation of buffers for use in enzyme studies. Methods Enzymol 1, 138–146. [Google Scholar]
  10. Humphry, D. R., George, A., Black, G. W. & Cummings, S. P.(2001).Flavobacterium frigidarium sp. nov., an aerobic, psychrophilic, xylanolytic and laminarinolytic bacterium from Antarctica. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1235–1243. [Google Scholar]
  11. Jeon, C. O., Park, W., Ghiorse, W. C. & Madsen, E. L.(2004).Polaromonas naphthalenivorans sp. nov., a naphthalene-degrading bacterium from naphthalene-contaminated sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 93–97.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Komagata, K. & Suzuki, K.(1987). Lipid and cell-wall analysis in bacterial systematics. Methods Microbiol 19, 161–207. [Google Scholar]
  13. Lane, D. J.(1991). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175. Edited by E. Stackebrandt & M. Goodfellow. Chichester: Wiley.
  14. Lányí, B.(1987). Classical and rapid identification methods for medically important bacteria. Methods Microbiol 19, 1–67. [Google Scholar]
  15. Leifson, E.(1963). Determination of carbohydrate metabolism of marine bacteria. J Bacteriol 85, 1183–1184. [Google Scholar]
  16. McCammon, S. A. & Bowman, J. P.(2000). Taxonomy of Antarctic Flavobacterium species: description of Flavobacterium gillisiae sp. nov., Flavobacterium tegetincola sp. nov. and Flavobacterium xanthum sp. nov., nom. rev. and reclassification of [Flavobacterium] salegens as Salegentibacter salegens gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1055–1063.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Park, M., Lu, S., Ryu, S. H., Chung, B. S., Park, W., Kim, C. J. & Jeon, C. O.(2006).Flavobacterium croceum sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2443–2447.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Park, M., Ryu, S. H., Vu, T. H., Ro, H. S., Yun, P. Y. & Jeon, C. O.(2007).Flavobacterium defluvii sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 233–237.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Pearson, W. R. & Lipman, D. J.(1988). Improved tools for biological sequence comparison. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85, 2444–2448.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Reva, O. N., Vyunitskaya, V. A., Reznik, S. R., Kozachko, I. A. & Smirnov, V. V.(1995). Antibiotic susceptibility as a taxonomic characteristic of the genus Bacillus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 409–411.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Rosselló-Mora, R. & Amann, R.(2001). The species concept for prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiol Rev 25, 39–67.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Ryu, S. H., Park, M., Jeon, Y., Lee, J. R., Park, W. & Jeon, C. O.(2007).Flavobacterium filum sp. nov., isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2026–2030.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Smibert, R. M. & Krieg, N. R.(1994). Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 607–654. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  24. Stackebrandt, E., Frederiksen, W., Garrity, G. M., Grimont, P. A. D., Kämpfer, P., Maiden, M. C. J., Nesme, X., Rosselló-Mora, R., Swings, J. & other authors(2002). Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1043–1047.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Tamaki, H., Hanada, S., Kamagata, Y., Nakamura, K., Nomura, N., Nakano, K. & Matsumura, M.(2003).Flavobacterium limicola sp. nov., a psychrophilic, organic-polymer-degrading bacterium isolated from freshwater sediments. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 519–526.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Tamaoka, J. & Komagata, K.(1984). Determination of DNA base composition by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. FEMS Microbiol Lett 25, 125–128.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Van Trappen, S., Vandecandelaere, I., Mergaert, J. & Swings, J.(2004).Flavobacterium degerlachei sp. nov., Flavobacterium frigoris sp. nov. and Flavobacterium micromati sp. nov., novel psychrophilic bacteria isolated from microbial mats in Antarctic lakes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 85–92.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Van Trappen, S., Vandecandelaere, I., Mergaert, J. & Swings, J.(2005).Flavobacterium fryxellicola sp. nov. and Flavobacterium psychrolimnae sp. nov., novel psychrophilic bacteria isolated from microbial mats in Antarctic lakes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 769–772.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Zhang, D. C., Wang, H. X., Liu, H. C., Dong, X. Z. & Zhou, P. J.(2006).Flavobacterium glaciei sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic bacterium isolated from the China No.1 glacier. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2921–2925.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Zhu, F., Wang, S. & Zhou, P.(2003).Flavobacterium xinjiangense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium omnivorum sp. nov., novel psychrophiles from the China No. 1 glacier. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 853–857.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


Neighbour-joining tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showing the phylogenetic relationships of strain BD-b365 and the type strains of all species with validly published names. [PDF](21 KB)


Transmission electron micrograph showing the general morphology of negatively stained cells of strain BD-b365 after growth for 2 days at 30 °C on R2A agar.


Cellular fatty acid compositions of strain BD-b365 and type strains of related species. [PDF](79 KB)


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error