Two strictly anaerobic bacterial strains (SV434 and S562) were isolated from rice-straw residue in a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms in Japan. They had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and showed almost the same phenotypic properties. The cells of both strains were Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods; extraordinarily long rods often occurred. Remarkable stimulation of growth occurred with the addition of haemin and cobalamin (vitamin B) to the medium. The supplementary cobalamin and haemin could be replaced if autoclaved and clarified sludge fluid obtained from the reactor was added. Both strains utilized a range of growth substrates, including arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, cellobiose, maltose, glycogen, starch, dextrin, amygdalin, lactate and pyruvate. Both strains produced acetate and propionate with a small amount of succinate from these substrates in the presence of haemin and cobalamin. Both strains were slightly alkaliphilic, having a pH optimum at about 7.9. The temperature range for growth was 5–35 °C, the optimum being 30 °C. The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0–4 % (w/v). Catalase activity was not detected in cells cultivated without haemin, whereas cells cultivated with haemin usually had the enzyme activity. Oxidase and nitrate-reducing activities were not detected. Aesculin was hydrolysed, but gelatin was not hydrolysed. Both strains were sensitive to bile acids. The major cellular fatty acids of both strains were anteiso-C and iso-C. Menaquinones MK-8(H) and MK-9(H) were the major respiratory quinones and the genomic DNA G+C contents were 46.2–47.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed both strains in the phylum . (isolated from swine-manure storage pits) was the species most closely related to both strains (95.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain). On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, strains SV434 and S562 represent a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SV434 (=JCM 14649 =DSM 19291).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Akasaka, H., Izawa, T., Ueki, K. & Ueki, A.(2003a). Phylogeny of numerically abundant culturable anaerobic bacteria associated with degradation of rice plant residue in Japanese paddy field soil. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 43, 149–161.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Akasaka, H., Ueki, A., Hanada, S., Kamagata, Y. & Ueki, K.(2003b).Propionicimonas paludicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive, propionate-producing bacterium isolated from plant residue in irrigated rice-field soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 1991–1998.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Akasaka, H., Ueki, K. & Ueki, A.(2004). Effects of plant residue extract and cobalamin on growth and propionate production of Propionicimonas paludicola isolated from plant residue in irrigated rice field soil. Microbes Environ 19, 112–119.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schäffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W. & Lipman, D. J.(1997). Gapped blast and psi-blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 3389–3402.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Bakir, M. A., Kitahara, M., Sakamoto, M., Matsumoto, M. & Benno, Y.(2006).Bacteroides intestinalis sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 151–154.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Bernhard, A. E. & Field, K. G.(2000). A PCR assay to discriminate human and ruminal feces on the basis of host differences in Bacteroides-Prevotella genes encoding 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 4571–4574.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Chouari, R., Le Paslier, D., Daegelen, P., Ginestet, P., Weissenbach, J. & Sghir, A.(2005). Novel predominant archaeal and bacterial groups revealed by molecular analysis of an anaerobic sludge digester. Environ Microbiol 7, 1104–1115.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Garrity, G. M. & Holt, J. G.(2001). The road map to the Manual. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, pp. 119–166. Edited by D. R. Boone, R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  9. Godon, J.-J., Zumstein, E., Dabert, P., Habouzit, F. & Moletta, R.(1997). Molecular microbial diversity of an anaerobic digestor as determined by small-subunit rDNA sequence analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 2802–2813. [Google Scholar]
  10. Holdeman, L. V., Cato, E. P. & Moore, W. E. C.(1977).Anaerobe Laboratory Manual, 4th edn. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  11. Holdeman, L. V., Kelly, R. W. & Moore, W. E. C.(1984). Genus I. Bacteroides Castellani and Chalmers 1919, 959. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1, pp. 604–631. Edited by N. R. Krieg & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  12. Hungate, R. E.(1966).The Rumen and Its Microbes. New York: Academic Press.
  13. Kaku, N., Ueki, A., Fujii, H. & Ueki, K.(2000). Methanogenic activities on rice roots and plant residue and their contributions to methanogenesis in wetland rice field soil. Soil Biol Biochem 32, 2001–2010.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Komagata, K. & Suzuki, K.(1987). Lipid and cell-wall analysis in bacterial systematics. Methods Microbiol 19, 161–207. [Google Scholar]
  15. Levén, L., Eriksson, A. R. B. & Schnürer, A.(2007). Effect of process temperature on bacterial and archaeal communities in two methanogenic bioreactors treating organic household waste. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 59, 683–693.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Miller, L. T.(1982). Single derivatization method for routine analysis of bacterial whole-cell fatty acid methyl esters, including hydroxyl acids. J Clin Microbiol 16, 584–586. [Google Scholar]
  17. Miyagawa, E., Azuma, R. & Suto, E.(1979). Cellular fatty acid composition in Gram-negative obligately anaerobic rods. J Gen Appl Microbiol 25, 41–51.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Moore, L. V. H., Bourne, D. M. & Moore, W. E. C.(1994). Comparative distribution and taxonomic value of cellular fatty acids in thirty-three genera of anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 338–347.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Murray, W. D., Sowden, L. C. & Colvin, J. R.(1984).Bacteroides cellulosolvens sp. nov., a cellulolytic species from sewage-sludge. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34, 185–187.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Muyzer, G., de Waal, E. C. & Uitterlinden, A. G.(1993). Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 695–700. [Google Scholar]
  21. Paster, B. J., Dewhirst, F. E., Olsen, I. & Fraser, G. J.(1994). Phylogeny of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. and related species. J Bacteriol 176, 725–732. [Google Scholar]
  22. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  23. Scholten-Koerselman, I., Houwaard, F., Janssen, P. & Zehnder, A. J. B.(1986).Bacteroides xylanolyticus sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium from methane producing cattle manure. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 52, 543–554.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Schwarz, W. H.(2001). The cellulosome and cellulose degradation by anaerobic bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56, 634–649.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Shah, H. N. & Collins, M. D.(1980). Fatty acid and isoprenoid quinone composition in the classification of Bacteroides melaninogenicus and related taxa. J Appl Bacteriol 48, 75–87.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Shah, H. N. & Collins, M. D.(1983). Genus Bacteroides. A chemotaxonomical perspective. J Appl Bacteriol 55, 403–416.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Ueki, A. & Suto, T.(1979). Cellular fatty acid composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria. J Gen Appl Microbiol 25, 185–196.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Ueki, A., Matsuda, K. & Ohtsuki, C.(1986). Sulfate reduction in the anaerobic digestion of animal waste. J Gen Appl Microbiol 32, 111–123.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Ueki, A., Akasaka, H., Suzuki, D. & Ueki, K.(2006a).Paludibacter propionicigenes gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative, propionate-producing bacterium isolated from plant residue in irrigated rice-field soil in Japan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 39–44.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Ueki, A., Akasaka, H., Suzuki, D., Hattori, S. & Ueki, K.(2006b).Xylanibacter oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative, xylanolytic bacterium isolated from rice-plant residue in flooded rice-field soil in Japan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2215–2221.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. Ueki, A., Akasaka, H., Satoh, A., Suzuki, D. & Ueki, K.(2007).Prevotella paludivivens sp. nov., a novel strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative, hemicellulose-decomposing bacterium isolated from plant residue and rice roots in irrigated rice-field soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1803–1809.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  33. Whitehead, T. R., Cotta, M. A., Collins, M. D., Falsen, E. & Lawson, P. A.(2005).Bacteroides coprosuis sp. nov., isolated from swine-manure storage pits. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 2515–2518.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  34. Wilkins, T. D., Wagner, D. L., Veltri, B. J., Jr & Gregory, E. M.(1978). Factors affecting production of catalase by Bacteroides. J Clin Microbiol 8, 553–557. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error