We have carried out a polyphasic taxonomic study of strain 11S, a halophilic, Gram-negative bacterium that is able to respire on nitrate and nitrite in anaerobiosis. Strain 11S was isolated from a solar saltern in Cahuil, a region next to Pichilemu (Chile). It grows at NaCl concentrations within the range of 3–20 % w/v (optimum 5–7.5 %), temperatures from 4 to 45 °C (optimum 20–32 °C) and within a pH range of 5–10 (optimum pH 7–9). Its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicates that it belongs to the genus in the class . Its closest relatives are , , and , with the type strains of which our strain showed maximum 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.1–98.1 %. Its G+C content is 65.3 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization studies showed 54.2 % relatedness between strain 11S and DSM 15356 and 47.2 % relatedness between strain 11S and CECT 5995. Lower DNA–DNA hybridization percentages were obtained against the type strains of other related species. Its major fatty acids are C 3-OH (5.56 %), iso-C 2-OH/C 7 (22.30 %), C (27.80 %) and C 7 (29.92 %). The proposed name for the novel species is sp. nov., with strain 11S (=CECT 7281 =LMG 24185) being the type strain.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Arahal, D. R., García, M. T., Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K. H. & Ventosa, A.(2001). Transfer of Halomonas canadensis and Halomonas israelensis to the genus Chromohalobacter as Chromohalobacter canadensis comb. nov. and Chromohalobacter israelensis comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1443–1448. [Google Scholar]
  2. Arahal, D. R., Castillo, A. M., Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K. H. & Ventosa, A.(2002). Proposal of Cobetia marina gen. nov., comb. nov., within the family Halomonadaceae, to include the species Halomonas marina. Syst Appl Microbiol 25, 207–211.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Berendes, F., Gottschalk, G., Heine-Dobbernack, E., Moore, E. R. B. & Tindall, B. J.(1996).Halomonas desiderata sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic, halotolerant and denitrifying bacterium isolated from a municipal sewage works. Syst Appl Microbiol 19, 158–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Bouchotroch, S., Quesada, E., Del Moral, A., Llamas, I. & Béjar, V.(2001).Halomonas maura sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1625–1632.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Burland, T. G.(2000).dnastar's Lasergene sequence analysis software. Methods Mol Biol 132, 71–91. [Google Scholar]
  6. Dobson, S. J. & Franzmann, P. D.(1996). Unification of the genera Deleya (Bauman et al. 1993), Halomonas (Vreeland et al. 1980), and Halovibrio (Fendrich 1988) and the species Paracoccus halodenitrificans (Robinson and Gibbons 1952) into a single genus, Halomonas, and placement of the genus Zymobacter in the family Halomonadaceae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 550–558.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Franzmann, P. D., Wehmeyer, U. & Stackebrandt, E.(1988).Halomonadaceae fam. nov., a new family of Proteobacteria to accommodate the genera Halomonas and Deleya. Syst Appl Microbiol 11, 16–19.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. García, M. T., Mellado, E., Ostos, J. C. & Ventosa, A.(2004).Halomonas organivorans sp. nov., a moderate halophile able to degrade aromatic compounds. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1723–1728.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Garriga, M., Ehrmann, M. A., Arnau, J., Hugas, M. & Vogel, R. F.(1998).Carnimonas nigrificans gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterial causative agent for black spot formation on cured meat products. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 677–686.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Garrity, G. M., Bell, J. A. & Lilburn, T.(2005). Family IV. Halomonadaceae Franzmann, Wehmeyer and Stackebrandt 1989, 205VP emend. Dobson and Franzmann 1996, 558. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 2, part B, p. 300. Edited by D. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, J. T. Staley & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  11. Jukes, T. H. & Cantor, C. R.(1969). Evolution of protein molecules. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, vol. 3, pp. 21–132. Edited by H. N. Munro. New York: Academic Press.
  12. Kim, K. K., Jin, L., Yang, H. C. & Lee, S. T.(2007).Halomonas gomseomensis sp. nov., Halomonas janggokensis sp. nov., Halomonas salaria sp. nov. and Halomonas denitrificans sp. nov., moderately halophilic bacteria isolated from saline water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 675–681.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Lane, D. J.(1991). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175. Edited by E. Stackebrandt & M. Goodfellow. Chichester: Wiley.
  14. Lind, E. & Ursing, J.(1986). Clinical strains of Enterobacter agglomerans (synonyms, Erwinia herbicola, Erwinia milletiae) identified by DNA-DNA hybridization. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B 94, 205–213. [Google Scholar]
  15. Marmur, J.(1961). A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from micro-organisms. J Mol Biol 3, 208–212.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Marmur, J. & Doty, P.(1962). Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation temperature. J Mol Biol 5, 109–118.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Martínez-Cánovas, M. J., Quesada, E., Llamas, I. & Béjar, V.(2004).Halomonas ventosae sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, denitrifying, exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 733–737.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Mata, J. A., Martínez-Cánovas, M. J., Quesada, E. & Béjar, V.(2002). A detailed phenotypic characterization of the type strain of Halomonas species. Syst Appl Microbiol 25, 360–375.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Moraine, R. A. & Rogovin, P.(1966). Kinetics of polysaccharide B-1459 fermentation. Biotechnol Bioeng 8, 511–524.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Mormile, M. R., Romine, M. F., García, M. T., Ventosa, A., Baisey, T. J. & Peyton, B. M.(1999).Halomonas campisalis sp. nov., a denitrifying, moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium. Syst Appl Microbiol 22, 551–558.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Okamoto, T., Taguchi, H., Nakamura, K., Ikenaga, H., Kuraishi, H. & Yamasato, K.(1993).Zymobacter palmae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new ethanol-fermenting peritrichous bacterium isolated from palm sap. Arch Microbiol 160, 333–337. [Google Scholar]
  22. Owen, R. J. & Hill, L. R.(1979). The estimation of base compositions, base pairing and genome size of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acids. In Identification Methods for Microbiologists, 2nd edn, pp. 277–296. Edited by F. A. Skinner & D. W. Lovelock. London: Academic Press.
  23. Owen, R. J. & Pitcher, D.(1985). Current methods for estimating DNA composition and levels of DNA-DNA hybridization. In Chemical Methods in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 67–93. Edited by M. Goodfellow & D. E. Minnikin. London: Academic Press.
  24. Rodríguez-Valera, F., Ruiz-Berraquero, F. & Ramos-Cormenzana, A.(1981). Characteristics of the heterotropic bacterial populations in hypersaline environments of different salt concentrations. Microb Ecol 7, 235–243.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Ventosa, A., Gutierrez, M. C., Garcia, M. T. & Ruiz-Berraquero, F.(1989). Classification of “Chromobacterium marismortui” in a new genus, Chromohalobacter gen. nov., as Chromohalobacter marismortui comb. nov., nom. rev. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 382–386.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Vreeland, R. H., Litchfield, C. D., Martin, E. L. & Elliot, E.(1980).Halomonas elongata, a new genus and species of extremely salt-tolerant bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 30, 485–495.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Wang, Y. N., Cai, H., Yu, S. L., Wang, Z. Y., Liu, J. & Wu, X. L.(2007a).Halomonas gudaonensis sp. nov., isolated from a saline soil contaminated by crude oil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 911–915.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Wang, Y. N., Cai, H., Chi, C. Q., Lu, A. H., Lin, X. G., Jiang, Z. F. & Wu, X. L.(2007b).Halomonas shengliensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, denitrifying, crude-oil-utilizing bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1222–1226.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Yoon, J. H., Lee, K. C., Kho, Y. H., Kang, K. H., Kim, C. J. & Park, Y. H.(2002).Halomonas alimentaria sp. nov., isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 123–130. [Google Scholar]
  30. Ziemke, F., Manfred, G. H., Lalucat, J. & Rosselló-Mora, R.(1998). Reclassification of Shewanella putrefaciens Owen's genomic group II as Shewanella baltica sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 179–186.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 4, pp. 872 - 876

Dendrogram based on 107 phenotypic characteristics.

Phylogenetic tree, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showing the position of strain 11S with respect to other members of the family .

[PDF file of Supplementary Figs S1 and S2](22 KB)


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error