During a survey to determine the prevalence of strains in water and skin of imported ornamental fish, 48 strains presumptively identified as were isolated but they could not be identified as members of any previously described species. These strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach including phylogenetic analysis derived from , and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA–DNA hybridization, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, genotyping by RAPD and extensive biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests in order to determine their taxonomic position. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses and DNA–DNA hybridization data, we describe a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed, with strain MDC47 (=DSM 18362 =CECT 7289) as the type strain. This is the first species description based on isolations from ornamental fish.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Altwegg, M.(1999).Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology, pp. 507–516. Edited by P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover & R. H. Yolken. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  2. Austin, B. & Adams, C.(1996). Fish pathogens. In The Genus Aeromonas, pp. 197–244. Edited by B. Austin, M. Altwegg, P. J. Gosling & S. Joseph. Chichester: Wiley.
  3. Camus, A. C., Durborow, R. M., Hemstreet, W. G., Thune, R. L. & Hawke, J. P.(1998).Aeromonas bacterial infections – motile aeromonad septicemia. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) Publication 478. Stoneville, MS: Southern Regional Aquaculture Center. http://govdocs.aquake.org/cgi/content/abstract/2003/727/7270080.
  4. Carnahan, A. M.(1993).Aeromonas taxonomy: a sea of change. 4th International Workshop on Aeromonas/Plesiomonas. Atlanta, GA. Med Microbiol Lett 2, 206–211. [Google Scholar]
  5. Cashion, P., Holder-Franklin, M. A., McCully, J. & Franklin, M.(1977). A rapid method for the base ratio determination of bacterial DNA. Anal Biochem 81, 461–466.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Collins, M. D., Martínez-Murcia, A. J. & Cai, J.(1993).Aeromonas enteropelogenes and Aeromonas ichthiosmia are identical to Aeromonas trota and Aeromonas veronii, respectively, as revealed by small-subunit rRNA sequence analysis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43, 855–856.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Colwell, R. R., MacDonnell, M. T., O'Brien, M. & De Ley, J.(1986). Proposal to recognize the family Aeromonadaceae fam. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36, 473–477.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. De Ley, J., Cattoir, H. & Reynaerts, A.(1970). The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Eur J Biochem 12, 133–142.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Dixon, B. A. & Issvoran, G. S.(1992). The activity of ceftiofur sodium for Aeromonas spp. isolated from ornamental fish. J Wildl Dis 28, 453–456.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Escara, J. F. & Hutton, J. R.(1980). Thermal stability and renaturation of DNA in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions: acceleration of the renaturation rate. Biopolymers 19, 1315–1327.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Figueras, M. J.(2005). Clinical relevance of Aeromonas. Rev Med Microbiol 16, 145–153.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Figueras, M. J., Alperi, A., Guarro, J. & Martínez-Murcia, A. J.(2006). Genotyping of isolates included in the description of a novel species should be mandatory. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1183–1184.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Harf-Monteil, C., Flèche, A. L., Riegel, P., Prévost, G., Bermond, D., Grimont, P. A. D. & Monteil, H.(2004).Aeromonas simiae sp. nov., isolated from monkey faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 481–485.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Hettiarachchi, D. C. & Cheong, C. H.(1994). Some characteristics of Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio species isolated from bacterial disease outbreaks in ornamental fish culture in Sri Lanka. J Natl Sci Counc Sri Lanka 22, 361–369. [Google Scholar]
  15. Huß, V. A. R., Festl, H. & Schleifer, K. H.(1983). Studies on the spectrophotometric determination of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Syst Appl Microbiol 4, 184–192.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Huys, G., Kämpfer, P. & Swing, J.(2001). New DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic data on the species Aeromonas ichthiosmia and Aeromonas allosaccharophila: A. ichthiosmia Schubert et al. 1990 is a later synonym of A. veronii Hickman-Brenner et al. 1987. Syst Appl Microbiol 24, 177–182.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Huys, G., Kämpfer, P. & Swing, J.(2002). DNA–DNA reassociation and phenotypic data indicate synonymy between Aeromonas enteropelogenes Schubert et al. 1990 and Aeromonas trota Carnahan et al. 1991. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1969–1972.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Huys, G., Cnockaert, M. & Swings, J.(2005).Aeromonas culicicola Pidiyar et al. 2002 is a later subjective synonym of Aeromonas veronii Hickman-Brenner et al. 1987. Syst Appl Microbiol 28, 604–609.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Kimura, M.(1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16, 111–120.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Kumar, S., Tamura, K., Jakobsen, I. B. & Nei, M.(2001).mega2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Bioinformatics 17, 1244–1245.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Kuo, T. F. & Chung, C. D.(1994). A survey of bacterial diseases from infectious aquarium fishes. Mem Coll Agric Natl Taiwan Univ 34, 239–246. [Google Scholar]
  22. Maier, T., Klepel, S., Renner, U. & Kostrzewa, M.(2006). Fast and reliable MALDI-TOF MS-based microorganism identification. Nat Methods 3 [Google Scholar]
  23. Martin-Carnahan, A. & Joseph, S. W.(2005). Order XII. Aeromonadales ord. nov. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 2, part B, p. 556. Edited by D. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, J. T. Staley & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  24. Martínez-Murcia, A. J.(1999). Phylogenetic positions of Aeromonas encheleia, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas DNA hybridization group 11 and Aeromonas group 501. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1403–1408.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Martínez-Murcia, A. J., Benlloch, S. & Collins, M. D.(1992a). Phylogenetic interrelationships of members of the genera Aeromonas and Plesiomonas as determined by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing: lack of congruence with results of DNA-DNA hybridizations. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42, 412–421.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Martínez-Murcia, A. J., Esteve, C., Garay, E. & Collins, M. D.(1992b).Aeromonas allosaccharophila sp. nov., a new mesophilic member of the genus Aeromonas. FEMS Microbiol Lett 91, 199–206.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Martínez-Murcia, A. J., Boán, I. F. & Rodríguez-Valera, F.(1995). Evaluation of the authenticity of haloarchaeal strains by random-amplified polymorphic DNA. Lett Appl Microbiol 21, 106–108.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Martínez-Murcia, A. J., Soler, L., Saavedra, M. J., Chacón, M. R., Guarro, J., Stackebrandt, E. & Figueras, M. J.(2005). Phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic discrepancies to differentiate Aeromonas salmonicida from Aeromonas bestiarum. Int Microbiol 8, 259–269. [Google Scholar]
  29. Martínez-Murcia, A. J., Figueras, M. J., Saavedra, M. J. & Stackebrandt, E.(2007). The recently proposed species Aeromonas sharmana sp. nov., isolate GPTSA-6T, is not a member of the genus Aeromonas. Int Microbiol 10, 61–64. [Google Scholar]
  30. Miñana-Galbis, D., Farfan, M., Loren, J. G. & Fuste, M. C.(2002). Biochemical identification and numerical taxonomy of Aeromonas spp. isolated from environmental and clinical samples in Spain. J Appl Microbiol 93, 420–430.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Miñana-Galbis, D., Farfan, M., Fuste, M. C. & Loren, J. G.(2004).Aeromonas molluscorum sp. nov., isolated from bivalve molluscs. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 2073–2078.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. Miñana-Galbis, D., Farfan, M., Fuste, M. C. & Loren, J. G.(2007).Aeromonas bivalvium sp. nov., isolated from bivalve molluscs. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 582–587.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  33. NCCLS(2004). Approved standard M2-A8. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.
  34. Pidiyar, V., Kaznowski, A., Narayan, N. B., Patole, M. & Shouche, Y. S.(2002).Aeromonas culicicola sp nov., from the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1723–1728.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  35. Saavedra, M. J., Guedes-Novais, S., Alves, A., Rema, P., Tacão, M., Correia, A. & Martínez-Murcia, A. J.(2004). Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Int Microbiol 7, 207–211. [Google Scholar]
  36. Saavedra, M. J., Figueras, M. J. & Martínez-Murcia, A. J.(2006). Updated phylogeny of the genus Aeromonas. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2481–2487.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  37. Saavedra, M. J., Perea, V., Fontes, M. C., Martins, C. & Martínez-Murcia, A. J.(2007). Phylogenetic identification of new Aeromonas allosaccharophila strains isolated from pigs, a species not detected since first description. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 91, 159–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  38. Saha, P. & Chakrabarti, T.(2006).Aeromonas sharmana sp. nov., isolated from a warm spring. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1905–1909.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  39. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  40. Schubert, R. H. W., Hegazi, M. & Wahlig, W.(1990a).Aeromonas enteropelogenes species nova. Hyg Med 15, 471–472. [Google Scholar]
  41. Schubert, R. H. W., Hegazi, M. & Wahlig, W.(1990b).Aeromonas ichthiosmia species nova. Hyg Med 15, 477–479. [Google Scholar]
  42. Soler, L., Yañez, M. A., Chacon, M. R., Aguilera-Arreola, M. G., Catalán, V., Figueras, M. J. & Martínez-Murcia, A. J.(2004). Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Aeromonas based on two housekeeping genes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1511–1519.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  43. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. H.(1997). The clustal_x window interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequences alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  44. Wayne, L. G., Brenner, D. J., Colwell, R. R., Grimont, P. A. D., Kandler, O. & Krichevsky, M. I.,Moore, L. H., Moore, W. E. C., Murray, R. G. E. & other authors(1987). International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 463–464.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  45. Yáñez, M. A., Catalán, V., Apráiz, D., Figueras, M. J. & Martínez-Murcia, A. J.(2003). Phylogenetic analysis of members of the genus Aeromonas based on gyrB gene sequences. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 875–883.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 5, pp. 1169 - 1175

Origin of the sp. nov. isolates described in the present study.

Antibiotic resistance frequency found in 43 isolates of sp. nov. tested in this study.

Dendrogram of relatedness between type strains of , based on MALDI-TOF analyses.

[PDF file of Supplementary Tables and Figure](98 KB)

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error