A novel marine bacterium, designated strain MKT133, was isolated from the foot epidermis of a nudibranch, (Mollusca), collected in seawater off the coast of Japan at a depth of 4 m. This bacterium was Gram-negative, motile, mesophilic and strictly aerobic, with small rod-shaped cells. Colonies of the strain after 4–5 days incubation on marine agar 2216 at 30 °C were less than 1 mm in diameter. The strain required salt for growth and contained Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C 7, C and C as major cellular fatty acids and C 3-OH as a hydroxy fatty acid. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate had highest similarity to , with 97.2 % sequence similarity to the type strain. Our phylogenetic analysis also revealed that this clade represents a distinct lineage and forms a deep branch with less than 90 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the members of the eight known orders within the . Sufficient differences exist to distinguish this strain from . The name sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain MKT133 (=IAM 15419 =KCTC 12842). The novel order ord. nov. and family fam. nov. are proposed for the distinct phyletic line represented by the genus .


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Ezaki, T., Hashimoto, Y. & Yabuuchi, E.(1989). Fluorometric deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization in microdilution wells as an alternative to membrane filter hybridization in which radioisotopes are used to determine genetic relatedness among bacterial strains. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 224–229.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Felsenstein, J.(1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Fitch, W. M.(1971). Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific tree topology. Syst Zool 20, 406–416.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Garrity, G. M., Bell, J. A. & Lilburn, T.(2005). Class I. Alphaproteobacteria class. nov. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 2, part C, p. 1. Edited by D. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, J. T. Staley & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  5. Garrity, G. M., Bell, J. A. & Lilburn, T.(2006).Alphaproteobacteria class. nov. In List of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively, but not Validly, Published, List no. 107. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1–6.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Jordan, E. M., Thompson, F. L., Zhang, X.-H., Li, Y., Vancanneyt, M., Kroppenstedt, R. M., Priest, F. G. & Austin, B.(2007).Sneathiella chinensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine alphaproteobacterium isolated from coastal sediment in Qingdao, China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 114–121.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Kimura, M.(1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16, 111–120.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Kurahashi, M. & Yokota, A.(2002). A preliminary report of phylogenetic diversity of bacterial strains isolated from marine creatures. J Gen Appl Microbiol 48, 251–259.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Kurahashi, M. & Yokota, A.(2004).Agarivorans albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a γ-proteobacterium isolated from marine animals. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 693–697.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Kwon, K. K., Lee, H. S., Yang, S. H. & Kim, S. J.(2005).Kordiimonas gwangyangensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from marine sediments that forms a distinct phyletic lineage (Kordiimonadales ord. nov.) in the ‘Alphaproteobacteria’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 2033–2037.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Mesbah, M., Premachandran, U. & Whitman, W. B.(1989). Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 159–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Pearson, W. R. & Lipman, D. J.(1988). Improved tools for biological sequence comparison. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85, 2444–2448.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  14. Stackebrandt, E., Frederiksen, W., Garrity, G. M., Grimont, P. A. D., Kämpfer, P., Maiden, M. C. J., Nesme, X., Rosselló-Mora, R., Swings, J. & other authors(2002). Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1043–1047.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error