1887

Abstract

Two novel species from section from different species of (peanuts) in Argentina are described as sp. nov. and sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. resembles and in producing aflatoxins B and B, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces aflatoxins G and G, aflavarins, aflatrem, aflavinines, parasiticolides and paspaline. This species also includes several isolates previously assigned to group II and three Australian soil isolates. produces aflatoxins B, B, G and G, kojic acid, chrysogine and parasiticolide, and some strains produce aspergillic acid. The type strain of is CBS 117610 =IBT 25020 and that of is CBS 117635 =IBT 27196. The Mycobank accession numbers for sp. nov. and sp. nov. are respectively MB 505188 and MB 505189 (http://www.mycobank.org).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.65123-0
2008-03-01
2019-09-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/58/3/725.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.65123-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Applegate, K. L. & Chipley, J. R. ( 1973; ). Increased aflatoxin G1 production by Aspergillus flavus via gamma irradiation. Mycologia 65, 1266–1273.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Austwick, P. K. C. & Ayerst, G. ( 1963; ). Groundnut microflora and toxicity. Chem Ind 1963, 55–61.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bayman, P. & Cotty, P. J. ( 1993; ). Genetic diversity in Aspergillus flavus: association with aflatoxin production and morphology. Can J Bot 71, 23–31.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bennett, J. W. & Papa, K. E. ( 1988; ). The aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. Adv Plant Pathol 6, 263–280.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chang, P.-K., Ehrlich, K. C. & Hua, S.-S. T. ( 2006; ). Cladal relatedness among Aspergillus oryzae isolates and Aspergillus flavus S and L morphotype isolates. Int J Food Microbiol 108, 172–177.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Codner, R. C., Sargeant, K. & Yeo, R. ( 1963; ). Production of aflatoxin by the culture of strains of Aspergillus flavus-oryzae on sterilized peanuts. Biotechnol Bioeng 5, 185–192.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cole, R. A. & Cox, R. H. ( 1981; ). Handbook of Toxic Fungal Metabolites. New York: Academic Press.
  8. Cotty, P. J. ( 1989; ). Virulence and cultural characteristics of two Aspergillus flavus strains pathogenic on cotton. Phytopathology 79, 808–814.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cotty, P. J. & Cardwell, K. F. ( 1999; ). Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. Appl Environ Microbiol 65, 2264–2266.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dorner, J. W., Cole, R. J. & Diener, U. L. ( 1984; ). The relationship of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with reference to production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid. Mycopathologia 87, 13–15.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Duran, R. M., Cary, J. W. & Calvo, A. M. ( 2007; ). Production of cyclopiazonic acid, aflatrem, and aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus is regulated by veA, a gene necessary for sclerotial formation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73, 1158–1168.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Egel, D. S., Cotty, P. J. & Elias, K. S. ( 1994; ). Relationships among isolates of Aspergillus sect. Flavi that vary in aflatoxin production. Phytopathology 84, 906–912.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ehrlich, K. C., Chang, P.-K., Yu, J. & Cotty, P. J. ( 2004; ). Aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster gene cypA is required for G aflatoxin formation. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 6518–6524.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Feibelman, T. P., Cotty, P. J., Doster, M. A. & Michailides, T. J. ( 1998; ). A morphologically distinct strain of Aspergillus nomius. Mycologia 90, 618–623.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Frisvad, J. C. & Samson, R. A. ( 2004a; ). Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1. Syst Appl Microbiol 27, 672–680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Frisvad, J. C. & Samson, R. A. ( 2004b; ). Polyphasic taxonomy of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. A guide to identification of food and air-borne terverticillate Penicillia and their mycotoxins. Stud Mycol 49, 1–174.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Frisvad, J. C. & Thrane, U. ( 1993; ). Liquid column chromatography of mycotoxins. In Chromatography of Mycotoxins: Techniques and Applications, pp. 253–372. Edited by V. Betina. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  18. Frisvad, J. C., Houbraken, J. & Samson, R. A. ( 1999; ). Aspergillus species and aflatoxin production: a reappraisal. In Food Microbiology and Food Safety into the Next Millennium, pp. 125–126. Edited by A. C. J. Tuijtelaars, R. A. Samson, F. M. Rombouts & S. Notermans. Zeist: Foundation Food Micro ‘99.
  19. Frisvad, J. C., Samson, R. A. & Smedsgaard, J. ( 2004; ). Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B1, B2 and sterigmatocystin. Lett Appl Microbiol 38, 440–445.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Frisvad, J. C., Skouboe, P. & Samson, R. A. ( 2005; ). Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin and 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, Aspergillus rambellii sp. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol 28, 442–453.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Geiser, D. M., Pitt, J. I. & Taylor, J. W. ( 1998; ). Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 388–393.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Geiser, D. M., Dorner, J. W., Horn, B. W. & Taylor, J. W. ( 2000; ). The phylogenetics of mycotoxin and sclerotium production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Fungal Genet Biol 31, 169–179.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Glass, N. L. & Donaldson, G. C. ( 1995; ). Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. Appl Environ Microbiol 61, 1323–1330.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hesseltine, C. W., Shotwell, O. L., Ellis, J. J. & Stubblefield, R. D. ( 1966; ). Aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 30, 795–805.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hesseltine, C. W., Shotwell, O. L., Smith, M., Ellis, J. J., Vandegraft, E. & Shannon, G. ( 1970; ). Production of various aflatoxins by strains of the Aspergillus flavus series. In Toxic Microorganisms: Mycotoxins, Botulism, pp. 202–210. Edited by M. Herzberg. Washington DC: UJNR Joint Panels on Toxic Micro-Organisms and the US Department of the Interior.
  26. Hillis, D. M. & Bull, J. J. ( 1993; ). An empirical test of bootstrapping as a method for assessing confidence in phylogenetic analysis. Syst Biol 42, 182–192.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hong, S. B., Cho, H. S., Shin, H. D., Frisvad, J. C. & Samson, R. A. ( 2006; ). Novel Neosartorya species isolated from soil in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 477–486.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Horn, B. W. ( 1997; ). Aspergillus caelatus, a new species in section Flavi. Mycotaxon 61, 185–191.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Houbraken, J., Due, M., Varga, J., Meijer, M., Frisvad, J. C. & Samson, R. A. ( 2007; ). Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Usti. Stud Mycol 59, 107–128.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ito, Y., Peterson, S. W., Wicklow, D. T. & Goto, T. ( 2001; ). Aspergillus pseudotamarii, a new aflatoxin producing species in Aspergillus section Flavi. Mycol Res 105, 233–239.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. JECFA ( 1997; ). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Forty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives 1996. WHO Technical Report Series 868. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  32. Klich, M. A. & Pitt, J. I. ( 1985; ). Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus from A. parasiticus and other closely related species. Trans Br Mycol Soc 91, 99–108.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Klich, M. A., Mullaney, E. J., Daly, C. B. & Cary, J. W. ( 2000; ). Molecular and physiological aspects of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis by Aspergillus tamarii and A. ochraceoroseus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53, 605–609.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kornerup, A. & Wanscher, J. H. ( 1978; ). Methuen Handbook of Colour, 3rd edn. London: Eyre Methuen.
  35. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M. ( 2004; ). mega3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5, 150–163.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kumeda, Y., Asao, T., Takahashi, H. & Ichinoe, M. ( 2003; ). High prevalence of B and G aflatoxin-producing fungi in sugarcane field soil in Japan: heteroduplex panel analysis identifies a new genotype within Aspergillus section Flavi and Aspergillus nomius. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 45, 229–238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kurtzman, C. P., Horn, B. W. & Hesseltine, C. W. ( 1987; ). Aspergillus nomius, a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 53, 147–158.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Murakami, H. ( 1971; ). Classification of the koji mold. J Gen Appl Microbiol 17, 281–309.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Murakami, H., Hayashi, K. & Ushijima, S. ( 1982; ). Useful key characters separating three Aspergillus taxa: A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. flavus. J Gen Appl Microbiol 28, 55–60.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Novas, M. V. & Cabral, D. ( 2002; ). Association of mycotoxin and sclerotia production with compatibility groups in Aspergillus flavus from peanut in Argentina. Plant Dis 86, 215–219.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Peterson, S. W., Ito, Y., Horn, B. W. & Goto, T. ( 2001; ). Aspergillus bombycis, a new aflatoxigenic species and genetic variation in its sibling species, A. nomius. Mycologia 93, 689–703.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Pildain, M. B., Vaamonde, G. & Cabral, D. ( 2003; ). Compatibilidad vegetativa y diversidad genética en Aspergillus flavus de la provincia de Salta, Argentina. Bol Soc Argent Bot 38 (Suppl.), 275 (in Spanish).
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Pildain, M. B., Vaamonde, G. & Cabral, D. ( 2004; ). Analysis of population structure of Aspergillus flavus from peanut based on vegetative compatibility, geographic origin, mycotoxin and sclerotia production. Int J Food Microbiol 93, 31–40.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Pildain, M. B., Cabral, D. & Vaamonde, G. ( 2005; ). Poblaciones de Aspergillus flavus en maní cultivado en diferentes zonas agroecológicas de la Argentina, caracterización morfológica y toxigénica. Rev Invest Agropec 34, 3–19 (in Spanish).
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Pitt, J. I., Hocking, A. D. & Glenn, D. R. ( 1983; ). An improved medium for detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. J Appl Bacteriol 54, 109–114.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Raper, K. B. & Fennell, D. I. ( 1965; ). The Genus Aspergillus. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  47. Saito, M. & Tsurota, O. ( 1993; ). A new variety of Aspergillus flavus from tropical soil in Thailand and its aflatoxin productivity. Proc Jpn Assoc Mycotoxicol 37, 31–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Samson, R. A., Hoekstra, E. S. & Frisvad, J. C. (editors) (2004). Introduction to Food- and Airborne Fungi, 7th edn. Utrecht: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.
  49. Samson, R. A., Noonim, P., Meijer, M., Houbraken, J., Frisvad, J. C. & Varga, J. ( 2007a; ). Diagnostic tools to identify black aspergilli. Stud Mycol 59, 129–145.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Samson, R. A., Hong, S., Peterson, S. W., Frisvad, J. C. & Varga, J. ( 2007b; ). Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya. Stud Mycol 59, 147–203.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Schroeder, H. W. ( 1966; ). Effect of corn steep liquor on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. Appl Microbiol 14, 381–385.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Smedsgaard, J. ( 1997; ). Micro-scale extraction procedure for standardized screening of fungal metabolite production in cultures. J Chromatogr A 760, 264–270.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Swofford, D. L. ( 2000; ). paup* 4.0: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  54. Tanaka, T., Hasegawa, A., Aoki, N., Yamamoto, S., Udagawa, S., Sekita, S., Harada, M., Nozawa, K. & Kawai, K. ( 1989; ). Production of aflatrem and its related indoloditerpenes by microsclerotium-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus. Proc Jpn Assoc Mycotoxicol 30, 19–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Vaamonde, G., Degrossi, C., Comerio, R. & Fernandez Pinto, V. ( 1995; ). Aspergillus flavus y A. parasiticus en maní cultivado en la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina): Características diferenciales y capacidad aflatoxicogénica. Bol Soc Argent Bot 30, 191–198 (in Spanish).
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Varga, J., Due, M., Frisvad, J. C. & Samson, R. A. ( 2007; ). Taxonomic revision of Aspergillus section Clavati based on molecular, morphological and physiological data. Stud Mycol 59, 89–106.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.65123-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.65123-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Neighbour-joining tree based on calmodulin sequence data of section . [PDF](19 KB)

PDF

sp. nov. CBS 117610 . (a–c) Colonies on CYA at 25 °C (a), CYA at 37 °C (b) and AFPA (c) after 7 days. (d–h) Conidiophores; (i) conidia. Bars, 10 µm. This figure is a colour version of Fig. 2 from the printed paper.

IMAGE

sp. nov. CBS 117635 . (a–c) Colonies on CYA at 25 °C (a), MEA (b) and YES agar (c) after 7 days. (d–g) Conidiophores; (h) conidia; (i) sclerotia. Bars, 10 µm (a–h) and 200 µm (i). This figure is a colour version of Fig. 3 from the printed paper.

IMAGE

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error