A novel extremely thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, strain LS12-2, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field at the Yonaguni Knoll IV, Southern Okinawa Trough. Cells of strain LS12-2 were motile rods, 1.5–4.0 μm in length and 0.4–0.5 μm in width. Strain LS12-2 was an obligate chemolithoautotroph that could utilize elemental sulfur or thiosulfate as an electron donor and nitrate or oxygen as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed at 65–85 °C (optimum 70–75 °C), pH 5.8–8.3 (optimum pH 6.9–7.5), 1.0–4.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.5 %) and 1.0–7.0 % O in the gas phase (optimum 3.0 %). Fatty acids detected were C (8.0 %), C (9.0 %), C (62.5 %) and C (20.5 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 51.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain LS12-2 belonged to the genus . Based on physiological and phylogenetic characteristics of the isolate, it is proposed that this strain represents a novel species in the genus , sp. nov. The type strain of is LS12-2 (=JCM 13302=DSM 17378).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Aguiar, P., Beveridge, T. J. & Reysenbach, A. L.(2004).Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense sp. nov., a thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing microaerophile from terrestrial hot springs in the Azores. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 33–39.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen, S. E., Grimshaw, H. M., Parkinson, J. A. & Quarmby, C.(1974). Inorganic constituents: nitrogen. In Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials, pp. 184–206. Edited by S. E. Allen. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  3. Balch, W. E., Fox, G. E., Magrum, L. J., Woese, C. R. & Wolfe, R. S.(1979). Methanogens: re-evaluation of a unique biological group. Microbiol Rev 43, 260–296. [Google Scholar]
  4. DeLong, E. F.(1992). Archaea in coastal marine environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 5685–5689.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Eder, W. & Huber, R.(2002). New isolates and physiological properties of the Aquificales and description of Thermocrinis albus sp. nov. Extremophiles 6, 309–318.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Gillis, M., Vandamme, P., De Vos, P., Swings, J. & Kersters, K.(2001). Polyphasic taxonomy. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, pp. 43–48. Edited by D. R. Boone, R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  7. Götz, D., Banta, A., Beveridge, T. J., Rushdi, A. I., Simoneit, B. R. T. & Reysenbach, A. L.(2002).Persephonella marina gen. nov., sp. nov. and Persephonella guaymasensis sp. nov., two novel, thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing microaerophiles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1349–1359.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Huber, R. & Stetter, K. O.(2001). Genus I. Aquifex. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, pp. 360–362. Edited by D. R. Boone, R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  9. Huber, R., Wilharm, T., Huber, D., Trincone, A., Burggraf, S., König, H., Rachel, R., Rockinger, I., Fricke, H. & Stetter, K. O.(1992).Aquifex pyrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., represents a novel group of marine hyperthermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 15, 340–351.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Huber, R., Eder, W., Heldwein, S., Wanner, G., Huber, H., Rachel, R. & Stetter, K. O.(1998).Thermocrinis ruber gen. nov., sp. nov., a pink-filament-forming hyperthermophilic bacterium isolated from Yellowstone National Park. Appl Environ Microbiol 64, 3576–3583. [Google Scholar]
  11. Ishii, M., Kawasumi, T., Igarashi, Y. & Reysenbach, A.-L.(2001). Genus III. Hydrogenobacter. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, pp. 363–364. Edited by D. R. Boone, R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  12. Jahnke, L. L., Eder, W., Huber, R., Hope, J. M., Hinrichs, K.-U., Hayes, J. M., Des Marais, D. J., Cady, S. L. & Summons, R. E.(2001). Signature lipids and stable carbon isotope analyses of Octopus Spring hyperthermophilic communities compared with those of Aquificales representatives. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 5179–5189.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Kawasumi, T., Igarashi, Y., Kodama, T. & Minoda, Y.(1984).Hydrogenobacter thermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, aerobic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34, 5–10.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Konno, U., Tsunogai, U., Nakagawa, F., Nakaseama, M., Ishibashi, J., Nunoura, T. & Nakamura, K.(2006). Liquid CO2 venting on the seafloor: Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Okinawa Trough. Geophys Res Lett 33, L16607[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Kryukov, V. R., Savel'eva, N. D. & Pusheva, M. A.(1983).Calderobacterium hydrogenophilum nov. gen., nov. sp., an extreme thermophilic hydrogen bacterium, and its hydrogenase activity. Mikrobiologiya 52, 781–788. [Google Scholar]
  16. Lane, D. J.(1985). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175. Edited by E. Stackebrandt & M. Goodfellow. Chichester: Wiley.
  17. Lauerer, G., Kristjansson, J. K., Langworthy, T. A., König, H. & Stetter, K. O.(1986).Methanothermus sociabilis sp. nov., a second species within the Methanothermaceae growing at 97 °C. Syst Appl Microbiol 8, 100–105.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Marteinsson, V. T., Hauksdottir, S., Hobel, C. F. V., Kristmannsdottir, H., Hreggvidsson, G. O. & Kristjansson, J. K.(2001). Phylogenetic diversity analysis of subterranean hot springs in Iceland. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 4242–4248.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Nakagawa, S., Takai, K., Horikoshi, K. & Sako, Y.(2003).Persephonella hydrogeniphila sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 863–869.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Nakagawa, S., Nakamura, S., Inagaki, F., Takai, K., Shirai, N. & Sako, Y.(2004).Hydrogenivirga caldilitoris gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic, hydrogen- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium from a coastal hydrothermal field. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 2079–2084.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Nakagawa, S., Shtaih, Z., Banta, A., Beveridge, T. J., Sako, Y. & Reysenbach, A. L.(2005a).Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, facultatively heterotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium from Yellowstone National Park, and emended descriptions of the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium, Sulfurihydrogenibium subterraneum and Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 2263–2268.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Nakagawa, S., Takai, K., Inagaki, F., Chiba, H., Ishibashi, J., Kataoka, S., Hirayama, H., Nunoura, T., Horikoshi, K. & Sako, Y.(2005b). Variability in microbial community and venting chemistry in a sediment-hosted backarc hydrothermal system: impacts of subseafloor phase-separation. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 54, 141–155.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Nübel, T., Klughammer, C., Huber, R., Hauska, G. & Schütz, M.(2000). Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase in membranes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (VF5). Arch Microbiol 173, 233–244.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Porter, K. G. & Feig, Y. S.(1980). The use of DAPI for identifying and counting aquatic microflora. Limnol Oceanogr 25, 943–948.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Reysenbach, A.-L., Wickham, G. S. & Pace, N. R.(1994). Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park. Appl Environ Microbiol 60, 2113–2119. [Google Scholar]
  26. Reysenbach, A.-L., Banta, A. B., Boone, D. R., Cary, S. C. & Luther, G. W.(2000). Microbial essentials at hydrothermal vents. Nature 404, 835[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Sako, Y., Takai, K., Ishida, Y., Uchida, A. & Katayama, Y.(1996).Rhodothermus obamensis sp. nov., a modern lineage of extremely thermophilic marine bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 1099–1104.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Shima, S. & Suzuki, K.(1993).Hydrogenobacter acidophilus sp. nov., a thermoacidophilic, aerobic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium requiring elemental sulfur for growth. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43, 703–708.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Spear, J. R., Walker, J. J., McCollom, T. M. & Pace, N. R.(2005). Hydrogen and bioenergetics in the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 2555–2560.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Stöhr, R., Waberski, A., Völker, H., Tindall, B. J. & Thomm, M.(2001).Hydrogenothermus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, recognition of Calderobacterium hydrogenophilum as a member of the genus Hydrogenobacter and proposal of the reclassification of Hydrogenobacter acidophilus as Hydrogenobaculum acidophilum gen. nov., comb. nov., in the phylum ‘Hydrogenobacter/Aquifex’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1853–1862.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T. & Horikoshi, K.(2000).Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 489–500.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. Takai, K., Komatsu, T. & Horikoshi, K.(2001a).Hydrogenobacter subterraneus sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, heterotrophic bacterium unable to grow on hydrogen gas, from deep subsurface geothermal water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1425–1435. [Google Scholar]
  33. Takai, K., Komatsu, T., Inagaki, F. & Horikoshi, K.(2001b). Distribution of archaea in a black smoker chimney structure. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 3618–3629.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  34. Takai, K., Hirayama, H., Sakihama, Y., Inagaki, F., Yamato, Y. & Horikoshi, K.(2002). Isolation and metabolic characteristics of previously uncultured members of the order Aquificales in a subsurface gold mine. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 3046–3054.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  35. Takai, K., Inagaki, F., Nakagawa, S., Hirayama, H., Nunoura, T., Sako, Y., Nealson, K. H. & Horikoshi, K.(2003a). Isolation and phylogenetic diversity of members of previously uncultivated epsilon-Proteobacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal fields. FEMS Microbiol Lett 218, 167–174. [Google Scholar]
  36. Takai, K., Kobayashi, H., Nealson, K. H. & Horikoshi, K.(2003b).Sulfurihydrogenibium subterraneum gen. nov., sp. nov., from a subsurface hot aquifer. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 823–827.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  37. Takai, K., Nakagawa, S., Sako, Y. & Horikoshi, K.(2003c).Balnearium lithotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph isolated from a black smoker chimney in the Suiyo Seamount hydrothermal system. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 1947–1954.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  38. Takai, K., Gamo, T., Tsunogai, U., Nakayama, N., Hirayama, H., Nealson, K. H. & Horikoshi, K.(2004). Geochemical and microbiological evidence for a hydrogen-based, hyperthermophilic subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem (HyperSLiME) beneath an active deep-sea hydrothermal field. Extremophiles 8, 269–282. [Google Scholar]
  39. Takai, K., Hirayama, H., Nakagawa, T., Suzuki, Y., Nealson, K. H. & Horikoshi, K.(2005).Lebetimonas acidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, acidophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph within the ‘Epsilonproteobacteria’, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal fumarole in the Mariana Arc. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 183–189.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  40. Tamaoka, J. & Komagata, K.(1984). Determination of DNA base composition by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. FEMS Microbiol Lett 25, 125–128.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  41. Van Dover, C. L., Humphris, S. E., Fornari, D., Cavanaugh, C. M., Collier, R., Goffredi, S. K., Hashimoto, J., Lilley, M. D., Reysenbach, A. L. & other authors(2001). Biogeography and ecological setting of Indian Ocean hydrothermal vents. Science 294, 818–823.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  42. Zillig, W., Holz, I., Janekovic, D., Klenk, H. P., Imsel, E., Trent, J., Wunderl, S., Forjaz, V. H., Coutinho, R. & Ferreira, T.(1990).Hyperthermus butylicus, a hyperthermophilic sulfur-reducing archaebacterium that ferments peptides. J Bacteriol 172, 3959–3965. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 3, pp. 676 - 681

Electron micrograph of negatively stained cell of strain LS12-2 .

The effect of temperature, pH, NaCl and O on growth of strain LS12-2 .

[ Combined PDF file] 125 KB


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error