1887

Abstract

Two novel sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains ALDC and Lake, which were able to oxidize n-alkanes, were isolated from a naval oily wastewater-storage facility (VA, USA) and from oilfield production water (OK, USA), respectively. The type strain (ALDC) had a narrow substrate specificity and could grow only with n-alkanes (from C to C), pyruvate, butyrate, hexanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid. Cells of strain ALDC stained Gram-negative and were slightly curved, short rods with oval ends (2.5–3.0×1.0–1.4 μm), often occurring in pairs. Cells tended to form aggregates or large clusters and were non-motile and did not form endospores. Optimum growth occurred between 31 and 37 °C and at pH 6.5–7.2. NaCl was not required for growth, but salt concentrations up to 55 g l could be tolerated. The DNA G+C content was 53.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that strains ALDC and Lake were closely related, but not identical (99.9 % similarity). The two strains were not closely related to other known alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacteria or to other genera of the . Therefore, it is proposed that strain ALDC (=JCM 13588=ATCC BAA-1302) represents the type strain of a novel species and genus, with the name gen. nov., sp. nov.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.64398-0
2006-12-01
2020-01-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/56/12/2737.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.64398-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aeckersberg, F., Bak, F. & Widdel, F. ( 1991; ). Anaerobic oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons to CO2 by a new type of sulfate-reducing bacterium. Arch Microbiol 156, 5–14.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aeckersberg, F., Rainey, F. & Widdel, F. ( 1998; ). Growth, natural relationships, cellular fatty acids and metabolic adaptation of sulfate-reducing bacteria that utilize long-chain alkanes under anoxic conditions. Arch Microbiol 170, 361–369.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schäffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W. & Lipman, D. J. ( 1997; ). Gapped blast and psi-blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 3389–3402.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Balch, W. E., Fox, G. E., Magrum, L. J., Woese, C. R. & Wolfe, R. S. ( 1979; ). Methanogens: reevaluation of a unique biological group. Microbiol Rev 43, 260–296.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Caldwell, M. E., Garrett, R. M., Prince, R. C. & Suflita, J. M. ( 1998; ). Anaerobic biodegradation of long-chain n-alkanes under sulfate-reducing conditions. Environ Sci Technol 32, 2191–2195.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cravo-Laureau, C., Matheron, R., Cayol, J.-L., Joulian, C. & Hirschler-Réa, A. ( 2004; ). Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., an n-alkane- and n-alkene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 77–83.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Davidova, I. A., Gieg, L. M., Nanny, M. A., Kropp, K. G. & Suflita, J. M. ( 2005; ). Stable isotopic studies of n-alkane metabolism by a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment culture. Appl Environ Microbiol 71, 8174–8182.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Duncan, K., Jennings, E., Buck, P., Wells, H., Kolhatkar, R., Sublette, K., Potter, W. & Todd, T. ( 2003; ). Multi-species ecotoxicity assessment of petroleum-contaminated soil. Soil Sediment Contam 12, 181–206.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ehrenreich, P., Behrends, A., Harder, J. & Widdel, F. ( 2000; ). Anaerobic oxidation of alkanes by newly isolated denitrifying bacteria. Arch Microbiol 173, 58–64.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Felsenstein, J. ( 1985; ). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fry, N. K., Warwick, S., Saunders, N. S. A. & Embley, T. M. ( 1991; ). The use of 16S ribosomal RNA analyses to investigate the phylogeny of the family Legionellaceae. J Gen Microbiol 137, 1215–1222.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Herrick, J. B., Madsen, E. L., Batt, C. A. & Ghiorse, W. C. ( 1993; ). Polymerase chain reaction amplification of naphthalene catabolic and 16S rRNA gene sequences from indigenous sediment bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 687–694.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hungate, R. E. ( 1969; ). A roll tube method for cultivation of strict anaerobes. In Methods in Microbiology, vol. 3B, pp. 117–132. Edited by J. R. Norris & D. W. Robbins. New York: Academic Press.
  14. Johnson, J. L. ( 1994; ). Similarity analysis of DNAs. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 655–682. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  15. Kniemeyer, O., Fischer, T., Wilkes, H., Glöckner, F. O. & Widdel, F. ( 2003; ). Anaerobic degradation of ethylbenzene by a new type of marine sulfate-reducing bacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 760–768.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kropp, K. G., Davidova, I. A. & Suflita, J. M. ( 2000; ). Anaerobic oxidation of n-dodecane by an addition reaction in a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment culture. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 5393–5398.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lovley, D. R. & Phillips, E. J. P. ( 1986; ). Availability of ferric iron for microbial reduction in bottom sediments of the freshwater tidal Potomac river. Appl Environ Microbiol 52, 751–757.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. McInerney, M. J., Stams, A. J. M. & Boone, D. R. ( 2005; ). Genus I. Syntrophobacter Boone and Bryant 1984, 355VP(Effective publication: Boone and Bryant 1980, 631). In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 2, part C, pp. 1021–1027. Edited by D. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, J. T. Staley & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  19. Mesbah, M., Premachandran, U. & Whitman, W. B. ( 1989; ). Precise measurement of G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 159–167.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mullins, T. D., Britschgi, T. B., Krest, R. L. & Giovannoni, S. J. ( 1995; ). Genetic comparisons reveal the same unknown bacteria lineages in Atlantic and Pacific bacterioplankton communities. Limnol Oceanogr 40, 148–158.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Muyzer, G., De Waal, E. C. & Uitterlinden, A. G. ( 1993; ). Profiling of microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 695–700.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Rabus, R., Wilkes, H., Behrends, A., Armstroff, A., Fischer, T. & Widdel, F. ( 2001; ). Anaerobic initial reaction of n-alkanes in a denitrifying bacterium: evidence for (1-methylpentyl)succinate as initial product and for involvement of an organic radical in n-hexane metabolism. J Bacteriol 183, 1707–1715.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rees, G., Grassia, G., Sheehy, A., Dwivedi, P. & Patel, B. ( 1995; ). Desulfacinum infernum gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from a petroleum reservoir. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 85–89.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Rozanova, E. P., Tourova, T. P., Kolganova, T. V., Lysenko, A. M., Mityushina, L. L., Yusupov, S. K. & Belyaev, S. S. ( 2001; ). Desufacinum subterraneum sp. nov., a new thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a high-temperature oil field. Microbiology (English translation of Mikrobiologiia) 70, 536–542.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rueter, P., Rabus, R., Wilkes, H., Aeckersberg, F., Rainey, F. A., Jannasch, H. W. & Widdel, F. ( 1994; ). Anaerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons in crude oil by new types of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Nature 372, 455–458.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sheridan, P. P., Miteva, V. I. & Brenchley, J. E. ( 2003; ). Phylogenetic analysis of anaerobic psychrophilic enrichment cultures obtained from a Greenland glacier ice core. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 2153–2160.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sievert, S. M. & Kuever, J. ( 2000; ). Desulfacinum hydrothermale sp. nov., a thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium from geothermally heated sediments near Milos Island (Greece). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1239–1246.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. So, C. M. & Young, L. Y. ( 1999; ). Isolation and characterization of a sulfate-reducing bacterium that anaerobically degrades alkanes. Appl Environ Microbiol 65, 2969–2976.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. So, C. M., Phelps, C. D. & Young, L. Y. ( 2003; ). Anaerobic transformation of alkanes to fatty acids by a sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain Hxd3. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 3892–3900.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Swofford, D. L. ( 2002; ). paup* – Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods), version 4.0b10. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  31. Tanner, R. ( 1997; ). Cultivation of bacteria and fungi. In Manual of Environmental Microbiology, pp. 52–60. Edited by C. J. Hurst, G. R. Knudsen, M. J. McInerney, L. D. Stetzenbach & M. V. Walter. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  32. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Trüper, H. G. & Schlegel, H. G. ( 1964; ). Sulphur metabolism in Thiorhodaceae. Quantitative measurements of growing cells of Chromatium okenii. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 30, 225–238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Widdel, F. & Bak, F. ( 1992; ). Gram-negative mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. In The Prokaryotes, vol. 4, pp. 3352–3378. Edited by A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K. H. Schleifer. New York: Springer.
  35. Widdel, F. & Pfennig, N. ( 1992; ). The genus Desulfuromonas and other gram-negative sulfur-reducing eubacteria. In The Prokaryotes, vol. 4, pp. 3379–3389. Edited by A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K. H. Schleifer. New York: Springer.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.64398-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.64398-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error