1887

Abstract

A new bacterial strain, designated SHRIMP, isolated from the haemolymph of the Pacific white shrimp, , was serologically distinct from other spiroplasmas. Cells of this strain were helical in form and variable in length. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delineated by a single cytoplasmic membrane. The organisms grew well in M1D media supplemented with 2 % NaCl. Strain SHRIMP grew at temperatures of 20–37 °C, with optimum growth occurring at 28 °C. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine, but did not hydrolyse urea. The G+C content of the DNA was 29±1 mol%. Strain SHRIMP (=ATCC BAA-1082=CAIM 1252) is designated the type strain of a novel species, sp. nov., which represents a new subgroup (I-9) of the group I spiroplasmas.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63555-0
2005-11-01
2021-10-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/55/6/2317.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63555-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aluotto B. B., Wittler R. G., Williams C. O., Faber J. E. 1970; Standardized bacteriologic techniques for the characterization of Mycoplasma species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 20:35–58 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bell T. A., Lightner D. V. 1988 A Handbook of Normal Penaeid Shrimp Histology , p. 6 Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Carle P., Saillard C., Bové J. M. 1983; Determination of guanine plus cytosine content of DNA. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:301–308
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Clark T. B. 1982; Spiroplasmas: diversity of arthropod reservoirs and host–parasite relationships. Science 217:57–59 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Daniels M. J., Longland J. M., Gilbart J. 1980; Aspects of motility and chemotaxis in spiroplasmas. J Gen Microbiol 118:429–436
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Davis R. E., Worley J. F. 1973; Spiroplasma : motile, helical microorganism associated with corn stunt disease. Phytopathology 63:403–408 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. FAO (Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2002 The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) Rome: FAO;
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gasparich G. E., Hackett K. J., Stamburski C., Renaudin J., Bové J. M. 1993; Optimization of methods for transfecting Spiroplasma citri strain R8A2 HP with the spiroplasma virus SpV1 replicative form. Plasmid 29:193–205 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gasparich G. E., Whitcomb R. F., Dodge D., French F. E., Glass J., Williamson D. L. 2004; The genus Spiroplasma and its non-helical descendants: phylogenetic classification, correlation with phenotype and roots of the Mycoplasma mycoides clade. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:893–918 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hackett K. J., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. 9 other authors 1993; Spiroplasma insolitum sp. nov., a new species of group I spiroplasma with an unusual DNA base composition. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:272–277 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Holthuis L. B. 1980; Shrimp and Prawn of the World (FAO species catalog, vol. 1). FAO Fish Synop 125: Rome: FAO;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. ICSB (International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes) 1995; Revised minimum standards for description of new species of the class Mollicutes (division Tenericutes . Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:605–612 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Jones A. L., Whitcomb R. F., Williamson D. L., Coan M. E. 1977; Comparative growth and primary isolation of spiroplasmas in media based on insect tissue culture formulations. Phytopathology 67:738–746
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kautsky N., Ronnback P., Tedengren M., Troell M. 2000; Ecosystem perspectives on management of disease in shrimp pond farming. Aquaculture 191:145–161 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Konai M., Clark E. A., Camp M., Koeh A. L., Whitcomb R. F. 1996; Temperature ranges, growth optima, and growth rates of Spiroplasma ( Spiroplasmataceae , class Mollicutes ) species. Curr Microbiol 32:314–319 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lightner D. V. 1993; Diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp. In CRC Handbook of Mariculture: Crustacean Aquaculture . , 2nd edn. vol 1 pp  393–486 Edited by McVey J. P. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press;
  17. Lightner D. V. 1996 A Handbook of Shrimp Pathology and Diagnostic Procedures for Diseases of Cultured Penaeid Shrimp (Special Publication of the World Aquaculture Society Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society;
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lightner D. V., Bell T. A., Redman R. M., Mohney L. L., Natividad J. M., Rukyani A., Poernomo A. 1992; A review of some major diseases of economic significance in penaeid prawns/shrimps of the Americas and Indopacific. In Diseases in Asian Aquaculture pp  57–80 Edited by Shariff I. M., Subasinghe R. P., Arthur J. R. Manila, Philippines: Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Maddison W. P., Maddison D. R. 1992 macclade: Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution, version 3.0 Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Meyer F. P. 1991; Aquaculture disease and health management. J Anim Sci 69:4201–4208
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nunan L. M., Poulos B., Redman R., Le Groumellec M., Lightner D. V. 2003; Molecular detection methods developed for a systemic rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) in Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Crustacea). Dis Aquat Organ 53:15–23 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nunan L. M., Pantoja C. R., Salazar M., Aranguren F., Lightner D. V. 2004; Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei . Dis Aquat Organ 62:255–264 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Pruder G. D., Brown C. L., Sweeney J. M., Carr W. H. 1995; High health shrimp systems: seed supply – theory and practice. In Swimming Through Troubled Water: Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming Aquaculture '95 pp  40–52 Edited by Browdy C. L., Hopkins J. S. Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Razin S., Hasin M., Ne'eman Z., Rottem S. 1973; Isolation, chemical composition, and ultrastructural features of the cell membrane of the mycoplasma-like organism Spiroplasma citri . J Bacteriol 116:1421–1435
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Swofford D. L. 1998 paup*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), version 4 Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates;
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Thompson J. D., Higgins D. G., Gibson T. J. 1994; clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Trachtenberg S. 1998; Mollicutes – wall-less bacteria with internal cytoskeletons. J Struct Biol 124:244–256 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tully J. G. 1983; Cloning and filtration techniques for mycoplasmas. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:173–177
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F. 1990; The genus Spiroplasma . In The Prokarotes pp  1960–1980 Edited by Starr M. P., Stolp H., Trüper H. G., Balows A., Schlegel H. G. New York: Springer;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F., Rose D. L., Bové J. M. 1982; Spiroplasma mirum , a new species from the rabbit tick ( Haemaphysalis leporispalustris . Int J Syst Bacteriol 32:92–100 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tully J. G., Bové J. M., Laigret F., Whitcomb R. F. 1993; Revised taxonomy of the class Mollicutes : proposed elevation of a monophyletic cluster of arthropod-associated mollicutes to ordinal rank ( Entomoplasmatales ord. nov.), with provision for familial rank to separate species with nonhelical morphology ( Entomoplasmataceae fam. nov.) from helical species ( Spiroplasmataceae ), and emended descriptions of the order Mycoplasmatales , family Mycoplasmataceae . Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:378–385 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wang W., Rong L., Gu W., Du K., Chen J. 2003; Study on experimental infections of Spiroplasma from the Chinese mitten crab in crayfish, mice and embryonated chickens. Res Microbiol 154:677–680 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wang W., Chen J., Du K., Xu Z. 2004; Morphology of spiroplasmas in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis associated with tremor disease. Res Microbiol 155:630–635 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Whitcomb R. F. 1983; Culture media for spiroplasmas. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:147–158
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Stephens E. B., Smith A., McCoy R. E., Barile M. F. 1982; Wall-less prokaryotes from fall flowers in central United States and Maryland. Curr Microbiol 7:285–290 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Williamson D. L., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. 1978; The spiroplasma deformation test, a new serological method. Curr Microbiol 1:203–207 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Williamson D. L., Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F. 1979; Serological relationships of spiroplasmas as shown by combined deformation and metabolism inhibition tests. Int J Syst Bacteriol 29:345–351 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Williamson D. L., Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F. 1989; The genus Spiroplasma . In The Mycoplasmas vol. 5 pp  71–111 Edited by Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. San Diego, CA: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Williamson D. L., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. 10 other authors 1998; Revised group classification of the genus Spiroplasma . Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:1–12 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Wyban J. A., Swingle J. S., Sweeney J. N., Pruder G. D. 1992; Development and commercial performance of high health shrimp using specific pathogen free (SPF) broodstock Penaeus vannamei . In Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming pp  254–259 Edited by Wyban J. A. Baton Rouge, LA: World Aquaculture Society;
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Zbinden M., Cambon-Bonavita M.-A. 2003; Occurrence of Deferribacterales and Entomoplasmatales in the deep-sea alvinocarid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata gut. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 46:23–30 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63555-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63555-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error