1887

Abstract

, an epierythrocytic organism that causes a mild haemolytic anaemia in laboratory and wild mice, currently is thought to be a rickettsia. To determine the relationship of this agent to other haemotrophic bacterial parasites, the 16S rRNA gene of this organism has been sequenced and it is shown by phylogenetic analysis that this wall-less bacterium is not a rickettsia but actually is a mycoplasma. This mycoplasma shares properties with and is closely related to the other uncultivated mycoplasmas that comprise a recently identified group, the haemotrophic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas). The haemoplasma group is composed of former and species as well as newly identified haemotrophic mycoplasmas. Haemoplasmas parasitize the surface of erythrocytes of a wide variety of vertebrate animal hosts and are transmitted mainly by blood-feeding arthropod vectors. Because both primary infections and chronic latent infections caused by this bacterium have been observed in many laboratories and this bacterium has been the subject of much experimental work, considerable information exists about this haemotrophic mycoplasma that may be applicable to other haemoplasmas. It is proposed that be reclassified as comb. nov. A Request for an Opinion is submitted to the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes regarding this reclassification.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63437-0
2005-05-01
2020-05-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/55/3/ijs551385.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63437-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ansari K. A., Neilson C. F., Stansly P. G. 1963; Pathogenesis of infectious splenic enlargement in mice. Exp Mol Pathol 2:61–68 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arison R. N., Cassaro J. A., Shonk C. E. 1963; Factors which affect plasma lactic dehydrogenase in tumor bearing mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 113:497–501 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Augsten K. 1982; Identification of Eperythrozoon coccoides by scanning electron microscope. Z Versuchstierkd 24:169–170
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker H. J., Cassell G. H., Lindsey J. R. 1971; Research complications due to Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon infections in experimental animals. Am J Pathol 64:625–632
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berkenkamp S. D., Wescott R. B. 1988; Arthropod transmission of Eperythrozoon coccoides in mice. Lab Anim Sci 38:398–401
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bidwell D. E., Voller A. 1967; The effect of Eperythrozoon coccoides on infections in mice. Parasitology 57:22P
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bruymoghe R., Vassiliadis P. C. 1929a; L' Eperythrozoaire coccoides . Compt Rend Soc Biol Paris 100:763–764 (in French
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bruymoghe R., Vassiliadis P. C. 1929b; Contribution a l'Étude des Eperythrozoaire coccoides . Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 7:353–364 (in French
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bruymoghe R., Vassiliadis P. C. 1929c; Transmission des eperythrozoaires de la souris. Compt Rend Soc Biol Paris 102:939–940 (in French
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cox F. E. 1975; Factors affecting infections of mammals with intraerythrocytic protozoa. Symp Soc Exp Biol 29:429–451
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Derrick E. H., Pope J. H., Chong S. K., Carley J. G., Lee P. E. 1954; Observations on infection of mice with Eperythrozoon coccoides Schilling. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 23:577–582
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dinger J. E. 1928; Een nieuw microorganisme bij muizen. Nederl Tidjs v Geneesk 82:5903–5905 (in Dutch
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dinger J. E. 1929; Näheres über das Eperythrozoon coccoides . Zentralbl Bakteriol Abt I Orig 113:503–510 (in German
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Eliot C. P. 1936; The insect vector for the natural transmission Eperythrozoon coccoides in mice. Science 84:397
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Eliot C. P., Ford W. W. 1930; Eperythrozoon coccoides in mice. Am J Hyg 12:677–680
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Finch S. C., Jonas A. M. 1973; Ethyl palmitate-induced bartonellosis as an index of functional splenic ablation. J Reticuloendothel Soc 13:20–26
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Finerty J. F., Evans C. B., Hyde C. L. 1973; Plasmodium berghei and Eperythrozoon coccoides : antibody and immunoglobulin synthesis in germfree and conventional mice simultaneously infected. Exp Parasitol 34:76–84 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fitzmaurice M. A., Riley V., Santisteban G. A. 1972; Biological synergism between the LDH-virus and Eperythrozoon coccoides : studies on the mechanism. Pathol Biol (Paris 20:743–750
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Glasgow L. A., Odugbemi T., Dwyer P., Ritterson A. L. 1971; Eperythrozoon coccoides . I. Effect on the interferon response in mice. Infect Immun 4:425–430
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Glasgow L. A., Murrer A. T., Lombardi P. S. 1974; Eperythrozoon coccoides . II. Effect on interferon production and role of humoral antibody in host resistance. Infect Immun 9:266–272
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gledhill A. W. 1956; Quantitative aspects of the enhancing action of Eperythrozoa on the pathogenicity of mouse hepatitis virus. J Gen Microbiol 15:292–304 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gledhill A. W., Niven J. S. 1957; The toxicity of some bacterial filtrates for mice pre-infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides . Br J Exp Pathol 38:284–290
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gledhill A. W. 1962; Viral diseases in laboratory animals. In Problems of Laboratory Animal Disease pp  99–113 Edited by Harris R. J. C. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gledhill A. W. 1965; Quantitative aspects of the enhancing action of eperythrozoa on the pathogenicity of mouse hepatitis virus. J Gen Microbiol 15:292–304
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gledhill A. W., Bilbey D. L., Niven J. S. 1965a; Effect of certain murine pathogens on phagocytic activity. Br J Exp Pathol 46:433–442
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gledhill A. W., Niven J. S., Seamer J. 1965b; Elimination of Eperythrozoon coccoides infection from mouse colonies. J Hyg (Lond 63:73–78 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hyde C. L., Finerty J. F., Evans C. B. 1972; Antibody and immunoglobulin synthesis in germfree and conventional mice infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides . Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:506–511
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Johansson K. E., Tully J. G., Bolske G., Pettersson B. 1999; Mycoplasma cavipharyngis and Mycoplasma fastidiosum , the closest relatives to Eperythrozoon spp. and Haemobartonella spp. FEMS Microbiol Lett 174:321–326 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kreier J. P., Ristic M. 1984; Genus III. Haemobartonella Tyzzer and Weinman 1939, 143AL; Genus IV. Eperythrozoon Schilling 1928, 1854AL . In Bergey's Manual of Systsematic Bacteriology vol 1 pp  724–729 Edited by Krieg N. R., Holt J. G. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kreier J. P., Dominquez N., Krampitz H. E., Gothe R., Ristic M. 1981; The haemotrophic bacteria: the families Bartonellaceae and Anaplasmataceae . In The Prokaryotes vol. 2 pp  2189–2209 Edited by Starr M. P., Stolp H., Trüper H. G., Balows A., Schlegel H. G. Berlin: Springer;
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kreier J. P., Gothe R., Ihler G. M., Krampitz H. E., Mernaugh G., Palmer G. H. 1992; The haemotrophic bacteria: the families Bartonellaceae and Anaplasmataceae . In The Prokaryotes vol 4 pp  3994–4022 Edited by Balows A., Trüper H. G., Dworkin M., Harder W., Schleifer K.-H. Berlin: Springer;
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ljungström I., Huldt G., Voller A. 1974; The effect of Eperythrozoon coccoides infection on the number of plaque forming cells in mice. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [B] Microbiol Immunol 82:911–913
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Marmorston J. 1935; Effect of splenectomy on a latent infection, Eperythrozoon coccoides in white mice. J Infect Dis 56:142–152 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. McCluskie J. A. W., Niven J. S. F. 1934; The blood changes in rats and mice after splenectomy with observations in Bartonella muris and Eperythrozoon coccoides . J Pathol Bacteriol 39:185–196 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Messick J. B., Walker P. G., Raphael W., Berent L., Shi X. 2002; Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis' sp. nov. ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae’ sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ), alpaca ( Lama pacos ) and dog ( Canis familiaris ): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:693–698 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Michel J. C., de Thoisy B., Contamin H. 2000; Chemotherapy of haemobartonellosis in squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus . J Med Primatol 29:85–87 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Neimark H., Kocan K. M. 1997; The cell wall-less rickettsia Eperythrozoon wenyonii is a mycoplasma. FEMS Microbiol Lett 156:287–291 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Neimark H., Johansson K.-E., Rikihisa Y., Tully J. G. 2001; Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis’, ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris’, ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis' and ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:891–899 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Neimark H., Barnaud A., Gounon P., Michel J. C., Contamin H. 2002a; The putative haemobartonella that influences Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in squirrel monkeys is a haemotrophic mycoplasma. Microbes Infect 4:693–698 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Neimark H., Johansson K.-E., Rikihisa Y., Tully J. G. 2002b; Revision of haemotrophic Mycoplasma species names. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:683
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Neimark H., Hoff B., Ganter M. 2004; Mycoplasma ovis comb. nov. (formerly Eperythrozoon ovis ), an epierythrocytic agent of haemolytic anaemia in sheep and goats. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:365–371 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Nelson J. B. 1956; An ascites tumor appearing during the passage of Eperythrozoon coccoides in mice. J Exp Med 103:743–752 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Niven J. S. F. 1971; Alan Watson Gledhill. 4 June 1910-20 July 1967. J Med Microbiol 4:389–404 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Niven J. S. F., Gledhill A. W., Dick G. W. A., Andrews C. H. 1952; Further light on mouse hepatitis. Lancet 2:1061
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Nowak J. 1929; Morphologie, nature et cycle évolutif du microbe de la péripneuminie des bovidés. Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris 43:1330–1352 (in French
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Ott K. J., Stauber L. A. 1967; Eperythrozoon coccoides : influence on course of infection of Plasmodium chabaudi in mouse. Science 155:1546–1548 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Ott K. J., Astin J. K., Stauber L. A. 1967; Eperythrozoon coccoides and rodent malaria: Plasmodium chabaudi and Plasmodium berghei . Exp Parasitol 21:68–77 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Peters W. 1965; Competitive relationship between Eperythrozoon coccoides and Plasmodium berghei in the mouse. Exp Parasitol 16:158–166 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Peters W. 1987 Chemotherapy and Drug Resistance in Malaria , 2nd edn. vol 1 London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Powers K. G., Jacobs R. L., Good W. C., Koontz L. C. 1969; Plasmodium vinckei : production of chloroquine-resistant strain. Exp Parasitol 26:193–202 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Rikihisa Y., Kawahara M., Wen B., Kociba G., Fuerst P., Kawamori F., Suto C., Shibata S., Futohashi M. 1997; Western immunoblot analysis of Haemobartonella muris and comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences of H. muris , H. felis , and Eperythrozoon suis . J Clin Microbiol 35:823–829
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Riley V. 1964; Synergism between a lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus and Eperythrozoon coccoides . Science 146:921–923 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Riley V., Loveless J. D., Fitzmaurice M. A. 1964; Comparison of a lactate dehydrogenase elevating viruslike agent and Eperythrozoon coccoides . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 116:486–490 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Schilling V. 1928; Eperythrozoon coccoides , eine neue durch Splenektomie aktivierbare Dauerinfektion der weissen Maus. Klin Wschr 7:1853–1855 (in German [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Seamer J. 1959; The propagation and preservation of Eperythrozoon coccoides . J Gen Microbiol 21:344–351 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Seamer J. 1967; Some virus infections of mice. In Pathology of Laboratory Rats and Mice pp  537–567 Edited by Cotchin E., Roe F. J. C. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis;
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Seamer J., Gledhill A. W., Barlow J. L., Hotchin J. 1961; Effect of Eperythrozoon coccoides upon lymphocytic choriomeningitis in mice. J Immunol 86:512–515
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Stansly P. G. 1965; Non-oncogenic infectious agents associated with experimental tumors. Prog Exp Tumor Res 7:224–258 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Stansly P. G., Neilson C. F. 1965; Relationship between spleen weight increase factor (SWIF) of mice and Eperythrozoon coccoides . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 119:1059–1063 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Stansly P. G., Neilson C. F. 1966a; Distinctive behaviour of Eperythrozoon coccoides in plasma and spleen of infected mice. Nature 211:1203–1204 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Stansly P. G., Neilson C. F. 1966b; Sedimentation of Eperythrozoon coccoides . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 121:363–365 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Suntharasamai P., Marsden P. D. 1969; Studies of splenomegaly in rodent malaria. I. The course of splenomegaly in mice infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides , Plasmodium berghei yoelii and the two infections combined. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 63:64–70 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Suntharasamai P., Marsden P. D. 1970; The effect of Eperythrozoon coccoides infection or splenectomy, or both, on the infection with a Peru strain of Trypanosoma cruzi in mice. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 64:167
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Suntharasamai P., Rytel M. W. 1973; Interferon response and interferon action in Eperythrozoon coccoides infection of mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 142:811–816 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Tanaka H., Hall W. T., Sheffield J. B., Moore D. H. 1965; Fine structure of Haemobartonella muris as compared with Eperythrozoon coccoides and Mycoplasma pulmonis . J Bacteriol 90:1735–1749
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Thompson P. E., Bayles A. 1966; Eradication of Eperythrozoon coccoides with oxophenarsine in normal and drug-resistant lines of Plasmodium berghei in mice. J Parasitol 52:674–678 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Thurston J. P. 1953; The chemotherapy of Eperythrozoon coccoides (Schilling, 1928. Parasitology 43:170–174 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Thurston J. P. 1954; Anaemia in mice caused by Eperythrozoon coccoides (Schilling, 1928). Parasitology 44:81–98 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Thurston J. P. 1955; Observations on the course of Eperythrozoon coccoides infections in mice, and the sensitivity of the parasite to external agents. Parasitology 45:141–151 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Uilenberg G., Thiaucourt F., Jongejan F. 2004; On molecular taxonomy: what is in a name?. Exp Appl Acarol 32:301–312 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Voller A., Bidwell D. E. 1968; The effect of Eperythrozoon coccoides infection in mice on super-imposed Plasmodium chabaudi and Semliki Forest Virus infections. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 62:342–348
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Weinman D. 1935 Les Parasites Érythrocytaires Révélés par la Splénectomie: Bartonella et Epérythrozoon Paris: Amédée Legrand (in French;
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Weinman D. 1944; Infectious anemias due to Bartonella and related red cell parasites. Trans Am Philos Soc 33:288–338 350
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Wigand R. 1958 Morphologische, Biologische und Serologische Eigenschaften der Bartonellen Stuttgart: Georg Thieme (in German);
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63437-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63437-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error