1887

Abstract

A Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a freshwater biofilm developed on a stainless steel surface under a fluid velocity of 0·26 m s. The strain, MBRG1.5, was cultivated on R2A agar and formed pink colonies. Light microscopy and negative staining in a transmission electron microscope showed that the cells were rod-shaped, approximately 2·8–4·1 μm long by 0·9–1·7 μm wide in size and produced large quantities of extracellular fibrillar material. Additionally, following growth in batch culture, transmission electron microscopy showed that many cells plasmolysed. Stationary-phase cells were more variable in size and shape. The DNA G+C content was 40·0 mol%. The most abundant fatty acids were 15 : 0 iso (22·5 %), followed by 16 : 15 (16·9 %) and 15 : 0 iso 2-OH (16·5 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the strain was a member of the family ‘’ of the group. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that the strain could not be assigned to any recognized genus; therefore a novel genus and species, gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed, with MBRG1.5 (=DSM 16391=NCIMB 14008) as the type strain.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63337-0
2005-03-01
2020-01-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/55/2/ijs550821.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63337-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Battin, T. J., Wille, A., Sattler, B. & Psenner, R. ( 2001; ). Phylogenetic and functional heterogeneity of sediment biofilms along environmental gradients in a glacial stream. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 799–807.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bott, T. R. & Grant, D. M. ( 2001; ). Biofilms in flowing systems. Methods Enzymol 337, 88–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bowman, J. P., Nichols, C. M. & Gibson, J. A. ( 2003; ). Algoriphagus ratkowskyi gen. nov., sp. nov., Brumimicrobium glaciale gen. nov., sp. nov., Cryomorpha ignava gen. nov., sp. nov. and Crocinitomix catalasitica gen. nov., sp. nov., novel flavobacteria isolated from various polar habitats. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 1343–1355.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Buczolits, S., Denner, E. B., Vybiral, D., Wieser, M., Kämpfer, P. & Busse, H. J. ( 2002; ). Classification of three airborne bacteria and proposal of Hymenobacter aerophilus sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 445–456.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Burke, V., Robinson, J., Gracey, M., Peterson, D. & Partridge, K. ( 1984; ). Isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from a metropolitan water supply: seasonal correlation with clinical isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 48, 361–366.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chun, J. & Goodfellow, M. ( 1995; ). A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Nocardia with 16S rRNA gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 240–245.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cohen-Bazire, G., Sistrom, W. R. & Stanier, R. Y. ( 1957; ). Kinetic studies of pigment synthesis by non-sulfur purple bacteria. J Cell Physiol 49, 25–68.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Collins, M. D., Hutson, R. A., Grant, I. R. & Patterson, M. F. ( 2000; ). Phylogenetic characterization of a novel radiation-resistant bacterium from irradiated pork: description of Hymenobacter actinosclerus sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 731–734.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Costerton, J. W., Lewandowski, Z., Caldwell, D. E., Korber, D. R. & Lappin-Scott, H. M. ( 1995; ). Microbial biofilms. Annu Rev Microbiol 49, 711–745.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Edwards, U., Rogall, T., Blocker, H., Emde, M. & Bottger, E. C. ( 1989; ). Isolation and direct complete nucleotide determination of entire genes. Characterization of a gene coding for 16S ribosomal RNA. Nucleic Acids Res 17, 7843–7853.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Eiler, A., Langenheder, S., Bertilsson, S. & Tranvik, L. J. ( 2003; ). Heterotrophic bacterial growth efficiency and community structure at different natural organic carbon concentrations. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 3701–3709.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Flemming, H.-C., Wingender, J., Mayer, C., Korstgens, V. & Borchard, W. ( 2000; ). Cohesiveness in biofilm matrix polymers. In Community Structure and Co-operation in Biofilms (Society for General Microbiology Symposium 59), pp. 87–106. Edited by D. G. Allison, P. Gilbert, H. M. Lappin-Scott & M. Wilson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  13. Garbeva, P., Overbeek, L. S., Vuurde, J. W. & Elsas, J. D. ( 2001; ). Analysis of endophytic bacterial communities of potato by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA based PCR fragments. Microb Ecol 41, 369–383.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Garrity, G. M. & Holt, J. G. ( 2001; ). The road map to the Manual. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, pp. 119–166. Edited by D. R. Boone, R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  15. Ghanem, F. M., Ridpath, A. C., Moore, W. E. & Moore, L. V. ( 1991; ). Identification of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium argentinense, and related organisms by cellular fatty acid analysis. J Clin Microbiol 29, 1114–1124.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gilbert, P., Maira-Litran, T., McBain, A. J., Rickard, A. H. & Whyte, F. W. ( 2002; ). The physiology and collective recalcitrance of microbial biofilm communities. Adv Microb Physiol 46, 202–256.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Glockner, F. O., Amann, R., Alfreider, A., Pernthaler, J., Psenner, R., Trebesius, K. & Schleifer, K. H. ( 1996; ). An in situ hybridization protocol for detection and identification of planktonic bacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 19, 403–406.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Handley, P. S., Carter, P. L., Wyatt, J. E. & Hesketh, L. M. ( 1985; ). Surface structures (peritrichous fibrils and tufts of fibrils) found on Streptococcus sanguis strains may be related to their ability to coaggregate with other oral genera. Infect Immun 47, 217–227.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hiorns, W. D., Methe, B. A., Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A. & Zehr, J. P. ( 1997; ). Bacterial diversity in Adirondack mountain lakes as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 2957–2960.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jukes, T. H. & Cantor, C. R. ( 1969; ). Evolution of protein molecules. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, pp. 21–132, Edited by H. N. Munro. New York: Academic Press.
  21. Junge, K., Eicken, H. & Deming, J. W. ( 2004; ). Bacterial activity at −2 to −20 °C in Arctic wintertime sea ice. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 550–557.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kerr, C. J., Osborn, K. S., Rickard, A. H., Robson, G. D. & Handley, P. S. ( 2003; ). Biofilms in water distribution systems. In Water and Wastewater Engineering, pp. 757–776. Edited by D. Mara & N. J. Horan. London: Academic Press.
  23. Kindaichi, T., Ito, T. & Okabe, S. ( 2004; ). Ecophysiological interaction between nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria in autotrophic nitrifying biofilms as determined by microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 1641–1650.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lane, D. L. ( 1991; ). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175. Edited by E. Stackebrandt & M. Goodfellow. Chichester: Wiley.
  25. Lewin, R. A. ( 1969; ). A classification of flexibacteria. J Gen Microbiol 58, 189–206.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lewin, R. A. & Lounsbery, D. M. ( 1969; ). Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of the flexibacteria. J Gen Microbiol 58, 145–170.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mandel, M. & Marmur, J. ( 1968; ). Use of ultraviolet absorbance temperature profile for determining the guanine plus cytosine content of DNA. Methods Enzymol 12B, 195–206.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Norton, C. D. & LeChevallier, M. W. ( 2000; ). A pilot study of bacteriological population changes through potable water treatment and distribution. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 268–276.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pearson, W. R. & Lipman, D. J. ( 1988; ). Improved tools for biological sequence comparison. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85, 2444–2448.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Purevdorj, B., Costerton, J. W. & Stoodley, P. ( 2002; ). Influence of hydrodynamics and cell signalling on the structure and behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 4457–4464.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Raj, H. D. & Maloy, S. R. ( 1990; ). Family Spirosomaceae: gram-negative ring-forming aerobic bacteria. Crit Rev Microbiol 17, 329–364.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Reasoner, D. J. & Geldreich, E. E. ( 1985; ). A new medium for the enumeration and subculture of bacteria from potable water. Appl Environ Microbiol 49, 1–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Reichenbach, H. ( 1992; ). The order Cytophagales. In The Prokaryotes, pp. 3631–3675. Edited by A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer. New York: Springer.
  34. Rickard, A. H., McBain, A. J., Stead, A. T. & Gilbert, P. ( 2004; ). Effects of fluid shear force upon the diversity and species interactions within freshwater biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 7426–7435.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schmeisser, C., Stockigt, C., Raasch, C. & 8 other authors ( 2003; ). Metagenome survey of biofilms in drinking-water networks. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 7298–7309.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Smibert, R. M. & Krieg, N. R. ( 1994; ). Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 607–654. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Kreig. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  37. Stackebrandt, E. & Goebel, B. M. ( 1994; ). Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 846–849.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Staley, J. T. & Gosink, J. J. ( 1999; ). Poles apart: biodiversity and biogeography of sea ice bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 53, 189–215.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Steinert, M., Hentschel, U. & Hacker, J. ( 2002; ). Legionella pneumophila: an aquatic microbe goes astray. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26, 149–162.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Stoodley, P., Sauer, K., Davies, D. G. & Costerton, J. W. ( 2002; ). Biofilms as complex differentiated communities. Annu Rev Microbiol 56, 187–209.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Van de Peer, Y. & De Wachter, R. ( 1997; ). Construction of evolutionary distance trees with treecon for Windows: accounting for variation in nucleotide substitution rate among sites. Comput Appl Biosci 13, 227–230.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Weisberg, W. G., Barns, S. M., Pelletier, D. A. & Lane, D. J. ( 1991; ). 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol 173, 697–703.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Williams, M. M. & Braun-Howland, E. B. ( 2003; ). Growth of Escherichia coli in model distribution system biofilms exposed to hypochlorous acid or monochloramine. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 5463–5471.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Yi, H. & Chun, J. ( 2004; ). Hongiella mannitolivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., Hongiella halophila sp. nov. and Hongiella ornithinivorans sp. nov., isolated from tidal flat sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 157–162.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Zalmum, A. A., Marialegite, K. & Ghenghesh, K. S. ( 1998; ). Bacterial composition of the biofilm on the surface of course sediment of the Danube: with special reference to the clinically important bacteria. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 75, 205–209.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63337-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63337-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error