1887

Abstract

A pleomorphic, extremely halophilic archaeon (strain M6) was isolated from a sulfide- and sulfur-rich spring in south-western Oklahoma (USA). It formed small (0·8–1·0 mm), salmon pink, elevated colonies on agar medium. The strain grew in a wide range of NaCl concentrations (6 % to saturation) and required at least 1 mM Mg for growth. Strain M6 was able to reduce sulfur to sulfide anaerobically. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain M6 belongs to the family , genus ; it showed 96·7–98·0 % similarity to other members of the genus with validly published names and 89 % similarity to , its closest relative outside the genus . Polar lipid analysis and DNA G+C content further supported placement of strain M6 in the genus . DNA–DNA hybridization values, as well as biochemical and physiological characterization, allowed strain M6 to be differentiated from other members of the genus . A novel species, sp. nov., is therefore proposed to accommodate the strain. The type strain is M6 (=JCM 12327=CCM 7217=DSM 16227=CIP 108334).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63211-0
2004-11-01
2020-01-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/54/6/ijs542275.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63211-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Asker, D. & Ohta, Y. ( 2002; ). Haloferax alexandrinus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic canthaxanthin-producing archaeon from a solar saltern in Alexandria (Egypt). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 729–738.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Balch, W. E. & Wolfe, R. S. ( 1976; ). New approach to the cultivation of methanogenic bacteria: 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (HS-CoM)-dependent growth of Methanobacterium ruminantium in a pressurized atmosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol 32, 781–791.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bryant, M. P. ( 1972; ). Commentary on the Hungate technique for culture of anaerobic bacteria. Am J Clin Nutr 25, 1324–1328.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Elshahed, M. S., Najar, F. Z., Roe, B. A., Oren, A., Dewers, T. A. & Krumholz, L. R. ( 2004; ). Survey of archaeal diversity reveals an abundance of halophilic Archaea in a low-salt, sulfide- and sulfur-rich spring. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 2230–2239.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Emerson, D., Chauhan, S., Oriel, P. & Breznak, J. A. ( 1994; ). Haloferax sp. D1227, a halophilic archaeon capable of growth on aromatic compounds. Arch Microbiol 161, 445–452.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gerhardt, P., Murray, R. G. E., Wood, W. A. & Krieg, N. R. (editors) ( 1994; ). Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 227–248. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  7. Grant, W. D. & Ross, H. N. M. ( 1986; ). The ecology and taxonomy of halobacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 39, 9–15.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Grant, W. D., Kamekura, M., McGenity, T. J. & Ventosa, A. ( 2001; ). The order Halobacteriales. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, pp. 294–334. Edited by D. R. Boone & R. W. Castenholz. New York: Springer.
  9. Gutierrez, M. C., Kamekura, M., Holmes, M. L., Dyall-Smith, M. L. & Ventosa, A. ( 2002; ). Taxonomic characterization of Haloferax sp. (‘H. alicantei’) strain Aa 2.2: description of Haloferax lucentensis sp. nov. Extremophiles 6, 479–483.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Juez, G., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ventosa, A. & Kushner, D. J. ( 1986; ). Haloarcula hispanica spec. nov. and Haloferax gibbonsii spec. nov., two new species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 8, 75–79.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. McGenity, T. J., Gemmell, R. T. & Grant, W. D. ( 1998; ). Proposal of a new halobacterial genus Natrinema gen. nov., with two species Natrinema pellirubrum nom. nov. and Natrinema pallidum nom. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 1187–1196.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Mullakhanbhai, M. F. & Larsen, H. ( 1975; ). Halobacterium volcanii spec. nov., a Dead Sea halobacterium with a moderate salt requirement. Arch Microbiol 104, 207–214.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Munson, M. A., Nedwell, D. B. & Embley, T. M. ( 1997; ). Phylogenetic diversity of Archaea in sediment samples from a coastal salt marsh. Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 4729–4733.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Oren, A. ( 2000; ). The order Halobacteriales. In The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community, 3rd edn, release 3.2. Edited by M. Dworkin, S. Falkow, E. Rosenberg, K.-H. Schleifer & E. Stackebrandt. New York: Springer. http://141.150.157.117:8080/prokPUB/index.htm
  15. Oren, A. ( 2002; ). Molecular ecology of extremely halophilic Archaea and Bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 39, 1–7.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Oren, A., Ventosa, A. & Grant, W. D. ( 1997; ). Proposal of minimal standards for the description of new taxa in the order Halobacteriales. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 233–238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Reysenbach, A. L., Longnecker, K. & Kirshtein, J. ( 2000; ). Novel bacterial and archaeal lineages from an in situ growth chamber deployed at a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 3798–3806.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ruiz-Berraquero, F. & Ramos-Cormenzana, A. ( 1979; ). Isolation of extreme halophiles from seawater. Appl Environ Microbiol 38, 164–165.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Rodriguez-Valera, F., Juez, G. & Kushner, D. J. ( 1983; ). Halobacterium mediterranei spec. nov., a new carbohydrate-utilizing extreme halophile. Syst Appl Microbiol 4, 369–381.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Takai, K., Komatsu, T., Inagaki, F. & Horikoshi, K. ( 2001; ). Distribution of archaea in a black smoker chimney structure. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 3618–3629.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Tindall, B. J. & Trüper, H. G. ( 1986; ). Ecophysiology of the aerobic halophilic archaebacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 7, 202–212.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tomlinson, G. A., Jahnke, L. L. & Hochstein, L. I. ( 1986; ). Halobacterium denitrificans sp. nov., an extremely halophilic denitrifying bacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36, 66–70.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Torreblanca, M., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Juez, G., Ventosa, A., Kamekura, M. & Kates, M. ( 1986; ). Classification of non-alkaliphilic halobacteria based on numerical taxonomy and polar lipid composition, and description of Haloarcula gen. nov. and Haloferax gen. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol 8, 89–99.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63211-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63211-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Scanning electron micrographs of rod-shaped cells of strain M6 during the exponential growth phase (top) and irregular cocci observed in liquid culture of strain M6 during the stationary growth phase (bottom).

IMAGE



IMAGE

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error