1887

Abstract

Fourteen isolates of two different bacterial species isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses were found to exhibit many characteristics of the genus . The isolates were aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming and non-motile. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained lysine, alanine and glutamic acid. sequence analysis indicated that the new isolates Re117 and Ca106 are closely related to the group and showed highest sequence similarity (>98 %) to and . However, DNA–DNA hybridization studies indicated that the strains represented two novel genomic species within the genus and did not belong to or (<43 % DNA–DNA relatedness). On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic distinctiveness of the new isolates, these bacteria should be classified as two novel species, for which the names sp. nov. and sp. nov. are proposed. Type strains have been deposited in culture collections as Ca106 (=CIP 108036=DSM 16367) and Re117 (=CIP 108037=DSM 16368).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63125-0
2005-01-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/55/1/ijs550457.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63125-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bockelmann, W. ( 2002; ). Development of defined surface starter cultures for the ripening of smear cheeses. Int Dairy J 12, 123–131.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bockelmann, W. & Hoppe-Seyler, T. ( 2001; ). The surface flora of bacterial smear-ripened cheeses from cow's and goat's milk. Int Dairy J 11, 307–314.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bockelmann, W., Krusch, U., Engel, G., Klijn, N., Smit, G. & Heller, J. ( 1997; ). The microflora of Tilsit cheese. Part 1. Variability of the smear flora. Nahrung 41, 208–212.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brennan, N. M., Brown, R., Goodfellow, M., Ward, A. C., Beresford, T. P., Simpson, P. J., Fox, P. F. & Cogan, T. M. ( 2001a; ). Corynebacterium mooreparkense sp. nov. and Corynebacterium casei sp. nov., isolated from the surface of a smear-ripened cheese. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 843–852.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brennan, N. M., Brown, R., Goodfellow, M., Ward, A. C., Beresford, T. P., Vancanneyt, M., Cogan, T. M. & Fox, P. F. ( 2001b; ). Microbacterium gubbeenense sp. nov., from the surface of a smear-ripened cheese. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1969–1976.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brennan, N. M., Ward, A. C., Beresford, T. P., Fox, P. F., Goodfellow, M. & Cogan, T. M. ( 2002; ). Biodiversity of the bacterial flora on the surface of a smear cheese. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 820–830.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Brenner, D. J. ( 1978; ). Characterization and clinical identification of Enterobacteriaceae by DNA hybridization. Prog Clin Pathol 7, 71–117.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brenner, D. J., McWhorter, A. C., Leete Knudson, J. K. & Steigerwalt, A. G. ( 1982; ). Escherichia vulneris: a new species of Enterobacteriaceae associated with human wounds. J Clin Microbiol 15, 1133–1140.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brenner, M., Niederwieser, A. & Pataki, G. ( 1969; ). Amino acids and derivatives. Thin-Layer Chromatography: a Laboratory Handbook, 2nd edn, pp. 730–786. Edited by E. Stahl. Berlin: Springer.
  10. Brosch, R., Lefèvre, M., Grimont, F. & Grimont, P. A. D. ( 1996; ). Taxonomic diversity of pseudomonads revealed by computer-interpretation of ribotyping data. Syst Appl Microbiol 19, 541–555.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Crosa, J. H., Brenner, D. J. & Falkow, S. ( 1973; ). Use of a single-strand specific nuclease for analysis of bacterial and plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid homo- and heteroduplexes. J Bacteriol 115, 904–911.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dauga, C., Miras, I. & Grimont, P. A. D. ( 1997; ). Strategy for detection and identification of bacteria based on 16S rRNA genes in suspected cases of Whipple's disease. J Med Microbiol 46, 340–347.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Eliskases-Lechner, F. & Ginzinger, W. ( 1995; ). The bacterial flora of surface-ripened cheeses with special regard to coryneforms. Lait 75, 571–584.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Euzéby, J. P. ( 2004; ). Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick 1947. In List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/a/arthrobacter.html
  15. Faller, A. & Schleifer, K. H. ( 1981; ). Modified oxidase and benzidine tests for separation of staphylococci from micrococci. J Clin Microbiol 13, 1031–1035.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Grimont, P. A. D., Popoff, M. Y., Grimont, F., Coynault, C. & Lemelin, M. ( 1980; ). Reproducibility and correlation study of three deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization procedures. Curr Microbiol 4, 325–330.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Higgins, D. G., Fuchs, R., Stoehr, P. J. & Cameron, G. N. ( 1992; ). The EMBL data library. Nucleic Acids Res 11 (Suppl.), 2071–2074.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hoppe-Seyler, T. S., Jaeger, B., Bockelmann, W., Noordman, W. H., Geis, A. & Heller, K. J. ( 2003; ). Identification and differentiation of species and strains of Arthrobacter and Microbacterium barkeri isolated from smear cheeses with amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Syst Appl Microbiol 26, 438–444.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hou, X. G., Kawamura, Y., Sultana, F., Shu, S., Hirose, K., Goto, K. & Ezaki, T. ( 1998; ). Description of Arthrobacter creatinolyticus sp. nov., isolated from human urine. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 423–429.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jukes, T. H. & Cantor, C. R. ( 1969; ). Evolution of protein molecules. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, pp. 21–132. Edited by H. N. Munro. New York: Academic Press.
  21. Keddie, R. M. & Cure, G. L. ( 1977; ). The cell wall composition and distribution of free mycolic acids in named strains of coryneform bacteria and in isolates from various natural sources. J Appl Bacteriol 42, 229–252.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Keddie, R. M., Collins, M. D. & Jones, D. ( 1986; ). Genus Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick 1947, 300AL. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, pp. 1288–1301. Edited by P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  23. Kloos, W. E., Tornabene, T. G. & Schleifer, K. H. ( 1974; ). Isolation and characterization of micrococci from human skin, including two new species: Micrococcus lylae and Micrococcus kristinae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 24, 79–101.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lefresne, G., Latrille, E., Irlinger, F. & Grimont, P. A. D. ( 2004; ). Repeatability and reproducibility of ribotyping and its computer interpretation. Res Microbiol 155, 154–161.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Marcellino, N. & Benson, D. R. ( 1992; ). Scanning electron and light microscopic study of microbial succession on Bethlehem St Nectaire cheese. Appl Environ Microbiol 58, 3448–3454.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Minnikin, D. E., Alshamaony, L. & Goodfellow, M. ( 1975; ). Differentiation of Mycobacterium, Nocardia and related taxa by thin-layer chromatographic analysis of whole-organism methanolysates. J Gen Microbiol 88, 200–204.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Minnikin, D. E., Hutchinson, I. G., Galdicott, A. B. & Goodfellow, M. ( 1980; ). Thin layer chromatography of methanolysates of mycolic acid containing bacteria. J Chromatogr 188, 221–223.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Osario, C., Barja, J. L., Hutson, R. A. & Collins, M. D. ( 1999; ). Arthrobacter rhombi sp. nov., isolated from Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1217–1220.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Piton, C. & Fontanier, C. ( 1990; ). Caractérisation d'une collection de souches de bactéries corynéformes de la morge du gruyère de Comté. Lait 70, 383–398 (in French).[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Piton-Malleret, C. & Gorrieri, M. ( 1992; ). Nature et variabilité de la flore microbienne dans la morge des fromages de Comté et de Beaufort. Lait 72, 143–164 (in French).[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Place, R. B., Hiestand, D., Burri, S. & Teuber, M. ( 2002; ). Staphylococcus succinus subsp. casei, subsp. nov., a dominant isolate from a surface ripened cheese. Syst Appl Microbiol 25, 353–359.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Place, R. B., Hiestand, D., Gallmann, H. R. & Teuber, M. ( 2003; ). Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, subsp. nov., a starter culture component for surface ripened semi-hard cheeses. Syst Appl Microbiol 26, 30–37.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Regnault, B., Grimont, F. & Grimont, P. A. D. ( 1997; ). Universal ribotyping method using a chemically labelled oligonucleotide probe mixture. Res Microbiol 148, 649–659.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schaal, K. P. ( 1985; ). Identification of clinically significant actinomycetes and related bacteria using chemical techniques. In Chemical Methods in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 359–382. Edited by M. Goodfellow & D. E. Minnikin. London: Academic Press.
  36. Schleifer, K. H. & Kandler, O. ( 1972; ). Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriol Rev 36, 407–477.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Stackebrandt, E. & Schumann, P. ( 2000; ). Introduction to the taxonomy of actinobacteria. In The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community, 3rd edn, release 3.3, 9 August 2000. New York: Springer. http://141.150.157.117:8080/prokPUB/index.htm
  38. Stackebrandt, E., Fowler, V. J., Fiedler, F. & Seiler, H. ( 1983; ). Taxonomic studies on Arthrobacter nicotianae and related taxa: description of Arthrobacter uratoxydans sp. nov. and Arthrobacter sulfureus sp. nov. and reclassification of Brevibacterium protophormiae as Arthrobacter protophormiae comb. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol 4, 470–486.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Valdès-Stauber, N., Scherer, S. & Seiler, H. ( 1997; ). Identification of yeasts and coryneform bacteria from the surface microflora of brick cheeses. Int J Food Microbiol 34, 115–129.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63125-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63125-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 1, pp. 457 - 462

DNA-DNA reassociation among strains of two novel species isolated from cheeses and related type strains.

Extended unrooted tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showing the phylogenetic relationships of sp. nov., sp. nov. and other members of the genus . The tree, constructed by the neighbour-joining method, was based on a comparison of approximately 1400 nucleotides.

Dendrogram and schematic representation of ribotypes for the 14 strains assigned to sp. nov. and sp. nov. obtained after restriction with II and I.

[Single PDF file](911 KB)



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error