A bacterium, designated strain lac18, was isolated in pure culture from the mucosal jejunum of a healthy pig, using a medium selective for anaerobic lactic acid bacteria and containing porcine gastric mucin as the main carbon and nitrogen source. Cells of this strain were coccus-shaped, arranged singly or in pairs and were Gram-stain-negative, oxidase-negative, non-spore-forming, anaerobic and microaerotolerant. An analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain lac18 should be assigned to the genus , class , phylum . 16S rRNA and gene sequence-based phylogenetic analyses both indicated that the most closely related species were ATCC 17746 (similarities of 96.6 and 84.5 %, respectively) and ATCC 17747 (similarities of 96.6 and 83.4 %, respectively). The results of DNA–DNA hybridizations between strain lac18 and these species and the type species of the genus, DSM 2008, confirmed the genotypic distinctness of the novel isolate. Data from phenotypic studies also served to differentiate strain lac18 from related strains. Therefore strain lac18 represents a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is lac18 (=CCUG 55454=CIP 109767=DSM 19857=JCM 15053).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Alexander, F. & Davies, M. E.(1963). Production and fermentation of lactate by bacteria in the alimentary canal of the horse and pig. J Comp Pathol 73, 1–8.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Altschul, S. F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E. W. & Lipman, D. J.(1990). Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215, 403–410.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Arif, N., Do, T., Byun, R., Sheehy, E., Clark, D., Gilbert, S. C. & Beighton, D.(2008).Veillonella rogosae sp. nov., an anaerobic, Gram-negative coccus isolated from dental plaque. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 581–584.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Bascomb, S. & Manafi, M.(1998). Use of enzyme tests in characterization and identification of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive cocci. Clin Microbiol Rev 11, 318–340. [Google Scholar]
  5. Bast, E.(2001).Mikrobiologische Methoden: eine Einführung in grundlegende Arbeitstechniken, 2nd edn. Heidelberg & Berlin: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag (in German).
  6. Byun, R., Carlier, J.-P., Jacques, N. A., Marchandin, H. & Hunter, N.(2007).Veillonella denticariosi sp. nov., isolated from human carious dentine. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2844–2848.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Corrier, D. E., Nisbet, D. J., Scanlan, C. M., Hollister, A. G. & Deloach, J. R.(1995). Control of Salmonellatyphimurium colonization in broiler chicks with a continuous-flow characterized mixed culture of cecal bacteria. Poult Sci 74, 916–924.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Deibel, R. H. & Evans, J. B.(1960). Modified benzidine test for the detection of cytochrome-containing respiratory systems in microorganisms. J Bacteriol 79, 356–360. [Google Scholar]
  9. Delwiche, E. A., Pestka, J. J. & Tortorello, M. L.(1985). The veillonellae: Gram-negative cocci with a unique physiology. Annu Rev Microbiol 39, 175–193.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Denger, K. & Schink, B.(1992). Energy conservation by succinate decarboxylation in Veillonella parvula. J Gen Microbiol 138, 967–971.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Gong, J., Si, W., Forster, R. J., Huang, R., Yu, H., Yin, Y., Yang, C. & Han, Y.(2007). 16S rRNA gene-based analysis of mucosa-associated bacterial community and phylogeny in the chicken gastrointestinal tracts: from crops to ceca. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 59, 147–157.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Hinton, A., Jr, Spates, G. E., Corrier, D. E., Hume, M. E., Deloach, J. R. & Scanlan, C. M.(1991). In vitro inhibition of the growth of Salmonellatyphimurium and Escherichia coli O157 : H7 by bacteria isolated from the cecal contents of adult chickens. J Food Prot 54, 496–501. [Google Scholar]
  13. Hinton, A., Jr, Corrier, D. E. & Deloach, J. R.(1992). Inhibition of the growth of Salmonellatyphimurium and Escherichia coli O157 : H7 on chicken feed media by bacteria isolated from the intestinal microflora of chickens. J Food Prot 55, 419–423. [Google Scholar]
  14. Holt, J. G., Krieg, N. R., Sneath, P. H. A., Staley, J. T. & Williams, S. T.(1994).Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  15. Hungate, R. E.(1969). A roll tube method for cultivation of strict anaerobes. Methods Microbiol 3B, 117–132. [Google Scholar]
  16. Johns, A. T.(1951). Isolation of a bacterium, producing propionic acid, from the rumen of sheep. J Gen Microbiol 5, 317–325.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Johnson, J. L.(1994). Similarity analysis of DNAs. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 655–682. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  18. Johnson, J. L. & Harich, B.(1983). Ribosomal ribonucleic acid homology among species of the genus Veillonella Prévot. Int J Syst Bacteriol 33, 760–764.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Juárez Tomás, M. S., Otero, M. C., Ocaña, V. & Nader-Macías, M. E.(2004). Production of antimicrobial substances by lactic acid bacteria. I. Determination of hydrogen peroxide. Methods Mol Biol 268, 337–346. [Google Scholar]
  20. Jumas-Bilak, E., Carlier, J.-P., Jean-Pierre, H., Teyssier, C., Gay, B., Campos, J. & Marchandin, H.(2004).Veillonella montpellierensis sp. nov., a novel, anaerobic, Gram-negative coccus isolated from human clinical samples. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1311–1316.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Kimura, M.(1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16, 111–120.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Kolenbrander, P.(2006). The genus Veillonella. In The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, 3rd edn, vol. 4, pp. 1022–1040. Edited by M. Dworkin, S. Falkow, E. Rosenberg, K-H. Schleifer & E. Stackebrandt. New York: Springer.
  23. Lane, D. J.(1991). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–147. Edited by E. Stackebrandt & M. Goodfellow. Chichester: Wiley.
  24. Leser, T. D., Amenuvor, J. Z., Jensen, T. K., Lindecrona, R. H., Boye, M. & Møller, K.(2002). Culture-independent analysis of gut bacteria: the pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 673–690.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Lewkowicz, X.(1901). Recherches sur la flore microbienne de la bouche des nourissons. Arch Méd Exp Anat Pathol 13, 633–660 (in French). [Google Scholar]
  26. Maidak, B. L., Cole, J. R., Lilburn, T. G., Parker, C. T., Jr, Saxman, P. R., Farris, R. J., Garrity, G. M., Olsen, G. J., Schmidt, T. M. & Tiedje, J. M.(2001). The RDP-II (Ribosomal Database Project). Nucleic Acids Res 29, 173–174.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Marchandin, H., Teyssier, C., Siméon de Buochberg, M., Jean-Pierre, H., Carriere, C. & Jumas-Bilak, E.(2003). Intra-chromosomal heterogeneity between the four 16S rRNA gene copies in the genus Veillonella: implications for phylogeny and taxonomy. Microbiology 149, 1493–1501.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Marchandin, H., Teyssier, C., Jumas-Bilak, E., Robert, M., Artigues, A. C. & Jean-Pierre, H.(2005). Molecular identification of the first human isolate belonging to the Veillonella rattiVeillonella criceti group based on 16S rDNA and dnaK gene sequencing. Res Microbiol 156, 603–607.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Marounek, M. & Bartos, S.(1987). Interactions between rumen amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria in growth on starch. J Appl Bacteriol 63, 233–238.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Mays, T. D., Holdeman, L. V., Moore, W. E. C., Rogosa, M. & Johnson, J. L.(1982). Taxonomy of the genus Veillonella Prévot. Int J Syst Bacteriol 32, 28–36.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. McGillivery, D. J. & Cranwell, P. D.(1992). Anaerobic microflora associated with the pars oesophagea of the pig. Res Vet Sci 53, 110–115.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. McGinnis, S. & Madden, T. L.(2004).blast: at the core of a powerful and diverse set of sequence analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 32, W20–W25.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  33. Murphy, J., Devane, M. L., Robson, B. & Gilpin, B. J.(2005). Genotypic characterization of bacteria cultured from duck faeces. J Appl Microbiol 99, 301–309.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  34. Nisbet, D.(2002). Defined competitive exclusion cultures in the prevention of enteropathogen colonisation in poultry and swine. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 81, 481–486.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  35. Otero, M. C. & Nader-Macías, M. E.(2006). Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by H2O2-producing Lactobacillus gasseri isolated from the vaginal tract of cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 96, 35–46.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  36. Pacheco Delahaye, E., Bouchet, B., Andrieux, C., Raibaud, P., Szylit, O. & Gallant, D. J.(1994). Breakdown of amylomaize starch granules in gnotobiotic rats associated with four bacterial strains isolated from conventional rat microflora. J Sci Food Agric 65, 487–495.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  37. Prévot, A.-R.(1933). Études de systématique bactérienne. I. Lois générales. II. Cocci anaérobies. Ann Sci Nat Bot 15, 23–260 (in French). [Google Scholar]
  38. Ritchey, M. B. & Delwiche, E. A.(1975). Characterization of a naturally occurring diamine auxotroph of Veillonella alcalescens. J Bacteriol 124, 1213–1219. [Google Scholar]
  39. Rogosa, M.(1956). A selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of the veillonella from the oral cavity. J Bacteriol 72, 533–536. [Google Scholar]
  40. Rogosa, M.(1965). The genus Veillonella. IV. Serological groupings, and genus and species emendations. J Bacteriol 90, 704–709. [Google Scholar]
  41. Rogosa, M.(1984). Anaerobic Gram-negative cocci. Family I. Veillonellaceae Rogosa 1971. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1, pp. 680–685. Edited by N. R. Krieg & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  42. Rogosa, M. & Bishop, F. S.(1964a). The genus Veillonella. III. Hydrogen sulfide production by growing cultures. J Bacteriol 88, 37–41. [Google Scholar]
  43. Rogosa, M. & Bishop, F. S.(1964b). The genus Veillonella. II. Nutritional studies. J Bacteriol 87, 574–580. [Google Scholar]
  44. Rogosa, M., Mitchell, J. A. & Wiseman, R. F.(1951). A selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of oral and fecal lactobacilli. J Bacteriol 62, 132–133. [Google Scholar]
  45. Rogosa, M., Krichevsky, M. I. & Bishop, F. S.(1965). Truncated glycolytic system in Veillonella. J Bacteriol 90, 164–171. [Google Scholar]
  46. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  47. Schäfer, K.(1995). Analysis of short-chain fatty acids from different intestinal samples by capillary gas chromatography. Chromatographia 40, 550–556.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  48. Seeliger, S., Janssen, P. H. & Schink, B.(2002). Energetics and kinetics of lactate fermentation to acetate and propionate via methylmalonyl-CoA or acrylyl-CoA. FEMS Microbiol Lett 211, 65–70.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  49. Smith, H. W.(1965). Observations on the flora of the alimentary tract of animals and factors affecting its composition. J Pathol Bacteriol 89, 95–122.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  50. Smith, H. W. & Jones, J. E. T.(1963). The effect of the addition of copper sulphate to the diet on the bacterial flora of the alimentary tract of the pig. J Appl Bacteriol 26, 262–265.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  51. Stackebrandt, E., Pohla, H., Kroppenstedt, R., Hippe, H. & Woese, C. R.(1985). 16S rRNA analysis of Sporomusa, Selenomonas, and Megasphaera: on the phylogenetic origin of Gram-positive eubacteria. Arch Microbiol 143, 270–276.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  52. Stams, A. J. M., Van Dijk, J. B., Dijkema, C. & Plugge, C. M.(1993). Growth of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria with fumarate in the absence of methanogenic bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 1114–1119. [Google Scholar]
  53. Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. & Kumar, S.(2007).mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24, 1596–1599.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  54. Tannock, G. W. & Smith, J. M. B.(1970). The microflora of the pig stomach and its possible relationship to ulceration of the pars oesophagea. J Comp Pathol 80, 359–367.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  55. Taras, D.(2001).Intestinal hydrogen metabolism: in vitro experiments and establishment of a gnotobiotic rat model. Doctoral thesis, Free University Berlin (in German).
  56. Tatusova, T. A. & Madden, T. L.(1999).blast 2 sequences, a new tool for comparing protein and nucleotide sequences. FEMS Microbiol Lett 174, 247–250.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  57. Tsukahara, T. & Ushida, K.(2002). Succinate accumulation in pig large intestine during antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the constitution of succinate-producing flora. J Gen Appl Microbiol 48, 143–154.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  58. Veillon, A. & Zuber, A.(1898). Recherches sur quelques microbes strictement anaérobies et leur rôle en pathologie. Arch Méd Exp Anat Pathol 10, 517–545 (in French). [Google Scholar]
  59. Wang, Q., Garrity, G. M., Tiedje, J. M. & Cole, J. R.(2007). Naïve Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Appl Environ Microbiol 73, 5261–5267.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  60. Willems, A. & Collins, M. D.(1995). Phylogenetic placement of Dialister pneumosintes (formerly Bacteroides pneumosintes) within the Sporomusa subbranch of the Clostridium subphylum of the Gram-positive bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 403–405.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  61. Wise, M. G. & Siragusa, G. R.(2007). Quantitative analysis of the intestinal bacterial community in one- to three-week-old commercially reared broiler chickens fed conventional or antibiotic-free vegetable-based diets. J Appl Microbiol 102, 1138–1149. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 12, pp. 2755 - 2761

Intra- and interspecific (%) similarity values of the gene sequences of strain lac18 (703 bp) and other strains in the genus as obtained by pairwise BLAST 2 SEQUENCES analysis. [ PDF] 54 KB

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error