1887

Abstract

A novel bacterial strain, CMG1240, was isolated in 1988 from mixed soil samples collected from the United States and South America in a selective enrichment medium with guar gum as the sole carbon source. This microbial isolate showed β-mannanolytic activity to hydrolyse the galactomannans present in guar gum. Strain CMG1240 was aerobic, Gram-stain-variable, non-motile, rod-shaped and endospore-forming. It was further examined based on a combination of phenotypic, physiological and genetic characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, cellular lipid profile and fatty acid composition, strain CMG1240 was shown to belong unequivocally to the genus . Quinone analysis showed that MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected. The main cell-wall sugar was xylose with trace amounts of mannose and glucose. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and unknown glycolipids, phospholipids, phosphoglycolipids and other lipids. The peptidoglycan structure was A1γ (-diaminopimelic acid-direct). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C and C. The DNA G+C content was 46 mol% as determined experimentally and by analysis of the genomic sequence. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain CMG1240 shared highest similarity with that of ZL (97.6 %) while all other tested strains showed lower sequence similarities (≤95.3 %). The results of DNA–DNA hybridization and chemotaxonomic tests enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain CMG1240 from . Based on these results, strain CMG1240 ( = ATCC BAA-2594 = DSM 25539) should be designated the type strain of a novel species within the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.054726-0
2014-04-01
2020-01-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/64/4/1166.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.054726-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altschul S. F. , Madden T. L. , Schäffer A. A. , Zhang J. , Zhang Z. , Miller W. , Lipman D. J. . ( 1997; ). Gapped blast and psi-blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. . Nucleic Acids Res 25:, 3389–3402. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Araujo A. , Ward O. P. . ( 1990; ). Hemicellulases of Bacillus species: preliminary comparative studies on production and properties of mannanases and galactanases. . J Appl Bacteriol 68:, 253–261. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ash C. , Priest F. G. , Collins M. D. . ( 1993/1994; ). Molecular identification of rRNA group 3 bacilli (Ash, Farrow, Wallbanks and Collins) using a PCR probe test. Proposal for the creation of a new genus Paenibacillus . . Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 64:, 253–260. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Aÿ J. , Götz F. , Borriss R. , Heinemann U. . ( 1998; ). Structure and function of the Bacillus hybrid enzyme GluXyn-1: native-like jellyroll fold preserved after insertion of autonomous globular domain. . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:, 6613–6618. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Busse H. J. , Denner E. B. , Lubitz W. . ( 1996; ). Classification and identification of bacteria: current approaches to an old problem. Overview of methods used in bacterial systematics. . J Biotechnol 47:, 3–38. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Caporaso J. G. , Bittinger K. , Bushman F. D. , DeSantis T. Z. , Andersen G. L. , Knight R. . ( 2010; ). PyNAST: a flexible tool for aligning sequences to a template alignment. . Bioinformatics 26:, 266–267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cashion P. , Holder-Franklin M. A. , McCully J. , Franklin M. . ( 1977; ). A rapid method for the base ratio determination of bacterial DNA. . Anal Biochem 81:, 461–466. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chou J. H. , Chou Y. J. , Lin K. Y. , Sheu S. Y. , Sheu D. S. , Arun A. B. , Young C. C. , Chen W. M. . ( 2007; ). Paenibacillus fonticola sp. nov., isolated from a warm spring. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:, 1346–1350. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Claus D. , Berkeley R. C. W. . ( 1986; ). Genus Bacillus Cohn 1872, 174AL . . In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, pp. 1105–1139. Edited by Sneath P. H. A. , Mair N. S. , Sharpe M. E. , Holt J. G. . . Baltimore:: Williams & Wilkins;.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. <1bold>Committee on Codex Specifications (1981). Hemicellulase activity. In Food Chemicals Codex, 3rd edn, pp. 490–491. Prepared by the committee on codex specifications, Food and Nutrition Board, Division of Biological Sciences, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  11. De Ley J. , Cattoir H. , Reynaerts A. . ( 1970; ). The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. . Eur J Biochem 12:, 133–142. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dhawan S. , Kaur J. . ( 2007; ). Microbial mannanases: an overview of production and applications. . Crit Rev Biotechnol 27:, 197–216. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Drancourt M. , Bollet C. , Carlioz A. , Martelin R. , Gayral J. P. , Raoult D. . ( 2000; ). 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of a large collection of environmental and clinical unidentifiable bacterial isolates. . J Clin Microbiol 38:, 3623–3630.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Enright M. R. , McInerney J. O. , Griffin C. T. . ( 2003; ). Characterization of endospore-forming bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp., and description of Paenibacillus nematophilus sp. nov.. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:, 435–441. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Felsenstein J. . ( 1989; ). phylip – phylogeny inference package (version 3.2). . Cladistics 5:, 164–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fodge D. W. , Anderson D. M. . ( 2003; ). Hemicellulase supplement to improve the energy efficiency of hemicelluloses-containing animal feed. . US Reissued Patent RE38,047 E.
  17. Fodge D. W. , Anderson D. M. , Pettey T. M. . ( 1996; ). Hemicellulase active at extremes of pH and temperature and utilizing the enzyme in oil wells. . US Patent 5,551,515.
  18. Gírio F. M. , Fonseca C. , Carvalheiro F. , Duarte L. C. , Marques S. , Bogel-Łukasik R. . ( 2010; ). Hemicelluloses for fuel ethanol: a review. . Bioresour Technol 101:, 4775–4800. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Goldstein A. M. , Alter E. N. . ( 1959; ). Guar gum. . In Industrial Gums: Polysaccharides and their Derivatives, pp. 321–341. Edited by Whistler R. L. , BeMiller J. N. . . New York:: Academic Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hespell R. B. . ( 1996; ). Fermentation of xylan, corn fiber, or sugars to acetoin and butanediol by Bacillus polymyxa strains. . Curr Microbiol 32:, 291–296. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Huss V. A. R. , Festl H. , Schleifer K. H. . ( 1983; ). Studies on the spectrophotometric determination of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. . Syst Appl Microbiol 4:, 184–192. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kämpfer P. , Rosselló-Mora R. , Falsen E. , Busse H.-J. , Tindall B. J. . ( 2006; ). Cohnella thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., and classification of ‘Paenibacillus hongkongensis’ as Cohnella hongkongensis sp. nov.. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:, 781–786.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kämpfer P. , Falsen E. , Lodders N. , Martin K. , Kassmannhuber J. , Busse H.-J. . ( 2012; ). Paenibacillus chartarius sp. nov., isolated from a paper mill. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:, 1342–1347. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Keswani J. , Whitman W. B. . ( 2001; ). Relationship of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to DNA hybridization in prokaryotes. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:, 667–678.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Khianngam S. , Akaracharanya A. , Tanasupawat S. , Lee K. C. , Lee J.-S. . ( 2009; ). Paenibacillus thailandensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus nanensis sp. nov., xylanase-producing bacteria isolated from soil. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:, 564–568. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kim O. S. , Cho Y. J. , Lee K. , Yoon S. H. , Kim M. , Na H. , Park S. C. , Jeon Y. S. , Lee J. H. . & other authors ( 2012; ). Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:, 716–721. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kluepfel D. . ( 1988; ). Screening of prokaryotes for cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes. . Methods Enzymol 160:, 180–186.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lee J.-C. , Yoon K.-H. . ( 2008; ). Paenibacillus woosongensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from forest soil. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:, 612–616. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lee H. J. , Shin D. J. , Cho N. C. , Kim H. O. , Shin S. Y. , Im S. Y. , Lee H. B. , Chum S. B. , Bai S. . ( 2000; ). Cloning, expression and nucleotide sequences of two xylanase genes from Paenibacillus sp.. Biotechnol Lett 22:, 387–392. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Logan N. A. , Berge O. , Bishop A. H. , Busse H. J. , De Vos P. , Fritze D. , Heyndrickx M. , Kämpfer P. , Rabinovitch L. . & other authors ( 2009; ). Proposed minimal standards for describing new taxa of aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:, 2114–2121. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. McCleary B. V. . ( 1988; ). β-d-Mannanase. . Methods Enzymol 160:, 596–610.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mesbah M. , Premachandran U. , Whitman W. B. . ( 1989; ). Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high performance liquid chromatography. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:, 159–167. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Moon J. C. , Jung Y. J. , Jung J. H. , Jung H. S. , Cheong Y. R. , Jeon C. O. , Lee K. O. , Lee S. Y. . ( 2011; ). Paenibacillus sacheonensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic and cellulolytic bacterium isolated from tidal flat sediment. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:, 2753–2757. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Morales P. , Madarro A. , Flors A. , Sendra J. M. , Pérez-González J. A. . ( 1995; ). Purification and characterization of a xylanase and an arabinofuranosidase from Bacillus polymyxa . . Enzyme Microb Technol 17:, 424–429. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Nakamura L. K. . ( 1987; ). Bacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski) Mace 1889 deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness and base composition. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:, 391–397. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Nicholas K. B. , Nicholas H. B. Jr , Deerfield D. W. II . ( 1997; ). GeneDoc: analysis and visualization of genetic variation. . EMBnet News 4: (2), 1–4. http://www.nrbsc.org/gfx/genedoc/ebinet.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Nielsen P. , Sorensen J. . ( 1997; ). Multi-target and medium independent fungal antagonism by hydrolytic enzymes in Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus pumillus strains from barley rhizosphere. . FEMS Microbiol Ecol 22:, 183–192. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Page R. D. M. . ( 1996; ). TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. . Comput Appl Biosci 12:, 357–358.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Pason P. , Kyu K. L. , Ratanakhanokchai K. . ( 2006; ). Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus strain B-6 xylanolytic-cellulolytic enzyme system that degrades insoluble polysaccharides. . Appl Environ Microbiol 72:, 2483–2490. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rainey F. A. , Ward-Rainey N. , Kroppenstedt R. M. , Stackebrandt E. . ( 1996; ). The genus Nocardiopsis represents a phylogenetically coherent taxon and a distinct actinomycete lineage: proposal of Nocardiopsaceae fam. nov.. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:, 1088–1092. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rice P. , Longden I. , Bleasby A. . ( 2000; ). emboss: the European molecular biology open software suite. . Trends Genet 16:, 276–277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Saitou N. , Nei M. . ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. . Mol Biol Evol 4:, 406–425.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Schleifer K. H. , Kandler O. . ( 1972; ). Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. . Bacteriol Rev 36:, 407–477.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Shida O. , Takagi H. , Kadowaki K. , Nakamura L. K. , Komagata K. . ( 1997a; ). Transfer of Bacillus alginolyticus, Bacillus chondroitinus, Bacillus curdlanolyticus, Bacillus glucanolyticus, Bacillus kobensis, and Bacillus thiaminolyticus to the genus Paenibacillus and emended description of the genus Paenibacillus . . Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:, 289–298. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Shida O. , Takagi H. , Kadowaki K. , Nakamura L. K. , Komagata K. . ( 1997b; ). Emended Description of Paenibacillus amylolyticus and Description of Paenibacillus illinoisensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus chibensis sp. nov. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:, 299–306.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Tamaoka J. , Komagata K. . ( 1984; ). Determination of DNA base composition by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 25:, 125–128. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Tindall B. J. , Rosselló-Móra R. , Busse H. J. , Ludwig W. , Kämpfer P. . ( 2010; ). Notes on the characterization of prokaryote strains for taxonomic purposes. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:, 249–266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wayne L. G. , Brenner D. J. , Colwell R. R. , Grimont P. A. D. , Kandler O. , Krichevsky M. I. , Moore L. H. , Moore W. E. C. , Murray R. G. E. . & other authors ( 1987; ). International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:, 463–464. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Zamost B. L. , Nielsen H. K. , Starnes R. L. . ( 1991; ). Thermostable enzymes for industrial applications. . J Ind Microbiol 8:, 71–82. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.054726-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.054726-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 

PDF

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error