1887

Abstract

The bacterial symbiont AM7, isolated from a novel entomopathogenic nematode species of the genus , displays the main phenotypic traits of the genus and is highly pathogenic to . Phylogenetic analysis based on a multigene approach (16S rRNA, , , , and ) confirmed the classification of isolate AM7 within the species and revealed its close relatedness to subsp. , subsp. and subsp. The five concatenated protein-encoding sequences (4197 nt) of strain AM7 revealed 95.8, 95.4 and 94.9 % nucleotide identity to sequences of subsp. HG29, subsp. FRG04 and subsp. C8404, respectively. These identity values are less than the threshold of 97 % proposed for classification within one of the existing subspecies of Unlike other strains described for , strain AM7 produces acid from adonitol, sorbitol and xylitol, assimilates xylitol and has no lipase activity on medium containing Tween 20 or 60. Strain AM7 is differentiated from subsp. by the assimilation of -acetylglucosamine and the absence of haemolytic activity. Unlike subsp. , strain AM7 does not assimilate mannitol, and it is distinguished from subsp. by the assimilation of trehalose and citrate, the inability to produce indole from tryptophan and the presence of acetoin production and urease activity. Strain AM7 ( = ATCC BAA-2407  = DSM 25462) belongs to a novel subspecies, and is proposed as the type strain of subsp. sp. nov.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.044388-0
2013-05-01
2020-01-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/63/5/1853.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.044388-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Akhurst R. J. . ( 1980; ). Morphological and functional dimorphism in Xenorhabdus spp., bacteria symbiotically associated with the insect pathogenic nematodes Neoaplectana and Heterorhabditis . . J Gen Microbiol 121:, 303–309.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Akhurst R. J. , Mourant R. G. , Baud L. , Boemare N. E. . ( 1996; ). Phenotypic and DNA relatedness between nematode symbionts and clinical strains of the genus Photorhabdus (Enterobacteriaceae). . Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:, 1034–1041. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Akhurst R. J. , Boemare N. E. , Janssen P. H. , Peel M. M. , Alfredson D. A. , Beard C. E. . ( 2004; ). Taxonomy of Australian clinical isolates of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of Photorhabdus asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis subsp. nov.. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:, 1301–1310. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. An R. , Grewal P. S. . ( 2010; ). Photorhabdus temperata subsp. stackebrandtii subsp. nov. (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). . Curr Microbiol 61:, 291–297. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. An R. , Grewal P. S. . ( 2011; ). Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kleinii subsp. nov. (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). . Curr Microbiol 62:, 539–543. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boemare N. E. , Akhurst R. J. , Mourant R. G. . ( 1993; ). DNA relatedness between Xenorhabdus spp. (Enterobacteriaceae), symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes, and a proposal to transfer Xenorhabdus luminescens to a new genus, Photorhabdus gen. nov.. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:, 249–255. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dereeper A. , Guignon V. , Blanc G. , Audic S. , Buffet S. , Chevenet F. , Dufayard J.-F. S. , Guindon S. , Lefort V. . & other authors ( 2008; ). Phylogeny.fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist. . Nucleic Acids Res 36:, W465–W469. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Felsenstein J. . ( 1988; ). Phylogenies from molecular sequences: inference and reliability. . Annu Rev Genet 22:, 521–565. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Felske A. , Rheims H. , Wolterink A. , Stackebrandt E. , Akkermans A. D. L. . ( 1997; ). Ribosome analysis reveals prominent activity of an uncultured member of the class Actinobacteria in grassland soils. . Microbiology 143:, 2983–2989. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fischer-Le Saux M. , Viallard V. , Brunel B. , Normand P. , Boemare N. E. . ( 1999; ). Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov.. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49:, 1645–1656. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Givaudan A. , Lanois A. . ( 2000; ). flhDC, the flagellar master operon of Xenorhabdus nematophilus: requirement for motility, lipolysis, extracellular hemolysis, and full virulence in insects. . J Bacteriol 182:, 107–115. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Guindon S. , Dufayard J.-F. , Lefort V. , Anisimova M. , Hordijk W. , Gascuel O. . ( 2010; ). New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0. . Syst Biol 59:, 307–321. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hazir S. , Stackebrandt E. , Lang E. , Schumann P. , Ehlers R. U. , Keskin N. . ( 2004; ). Two new subspecies of Photorhabdus luminescens, isolated from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kayaii subsp. nov. and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis subsp. nov.. Syst Appl Microbiol 27:, 36–42. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kimura M. . ( 1980; ). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. . J Mol Evol 16:, 111–120. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Koppenhöfer H. S. . ( 2007; ). Bacterial symbionts of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis . . In Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Systematics, Phylogeny and Bacterial Symbionts (Nematology Monographs and Perspectives, vol. 5), pp. 735–808. Edited by Nguyen K. B. , Hunt D. J. . . Leiden:: Brill Publishing;.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lee M. M. , Stock S. P. . ( 2010; ). A multigene approach for assessing evolutionary relationships of Xenorhabdus spp. (γ-Proteobacteria), the bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes. . J Invertebr Pathol 104:, 67–74. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lerat E. , Daubin V. , Moran N. A. . ( 2003; ). From gene trees to organismal phylogeny in prokaryotes: the case of the γ-Proteobacteria. . PLoS Biol 1:, E19. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Malan A. P. , Knoetze R. , Moore S. D. . ( 2011; ). Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth. . J Invertebr Pathol 108:, 115–125. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Malan A. P. , Knoetze R. , Tiedt L. . ( 2013; ). Heterorhabditis noenieputensis n. sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa. . J Helminthol (in press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000806
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Marokhazi J. , Waterfield N. , LeGoff G. , Feil E. , Stabler R. , Hinds J. , Fodor A. , ffrench-Constant R. H. . ( 2003; ). Using a DNA microarray to investigate the distribution of insect virulence factors in strains of Photorhabdus bacteria. . J Bacteriol 185:, 4648–4656. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Peat S. M. , Ffrench-Constant R. H. , Waterfield N. R. , Marokházi J. , Fodor A. , Adams B. J. . ( 2010; ). A robust phylogenetic framework for the bacterial genus Photorhabdus and its use in studying the evolution and maintenance of bioluminescence: a case for 16S, gyrB, and glnA . . Mol Phylogenet Evol 57:, 728–740. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Posada D. , Crandall K. A. . ( 1998; ). modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. . Bioinformatics 14:, 817–818. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Saitou N. , Nei M. . ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. . Mol Biol Evol 4:, 406–425.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Sawyer S. . ( 1989; ). Statistical tests for detecting gene conversion. . Mol Biol Evol 6:, 526–538.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Sergeant M. , Baxter L. , Jarrett P. , Shaw E. , Ousley M. , Winstanley C. , Morgan J. A. W. . ( 2006; ). Identification, typing, and insecticidal activity of Xenorhabdus isolates from entomopathogenic nematodes in United Kingdom soil and characterization of the xpt toxin loci. . Appl Environ Microbiol 72:, 5895–5907. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sicard M. , Hinsinger J. , Le Brun N. , Pages S. , Boemare N. , Moulia C. . ( 2006; ). Interspecific competition between entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema) is modified by their bacterial symbionts (Xenorhabdus). . BMC Evol Biol 6:, 68. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sierra G. . ( 1957; ). A simple method for the detection of lipolytic activity of micro-organisms and some observations on the influence of the contact between cells and fatty substrates. . Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 23:, 15–22. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tailliez P. , Laroui C. , Ginibre N. , Paule A. , Pagès S. , Boemare N. . ( 2010; ). Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. khanii subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. tasmaniensis subsp. nov., and the reclassification of P. luminescens subsp. thracensis as P. temperata subsp. thracensis comb. nov.. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:, 1921–1937. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tailliez P. , Pagès S. , Edgington S. , Tymo L. M. , Buddie A. G. . ( 2012; ). Description of Xenorhabdus magdalenensis sp. nov., the symbiotic bacterium associated with Steinernema australe . . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:, 1761–1765. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tóth T. , Lakatos T. . ( 2008; ). Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea subsp. nov., isolated for Heterorhabditis nematodes. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:, 2579–2581. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.044388-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.044388-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 

PDF

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error