1887

Abstract

Plants of exhibiting symptoms of undersized leaves, shoot proliferation and yellowing, collectively defined as bindweed yellows, were sampled in different regions of Europe and assessed for phytoplasma infection by PCR amplification using phytoplasma universal rRNA operon primer pairs. Positive results were obtained for all diseased plants. RFLP analysis of amplicons comprising the16S rRNA gene alone or the16S rRNA gene and 16-23S intergenic spacer region indicated that the detected phytoplasmas were distinguishable from all other previously described rRNA gene sequences. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from seven selected phytoplasma strains (BY-S57/11, BY-S62/11, BY-I1015, BY-I1016, BY-BH1, BY-BH2 and BY-G) showed that they were nearly identical (99.9–100 % gene sequence similarity) but shared less than 97.5 % similarity with comparable sequences of other phytoplasmas. Thus, BY phytoplasmas represent a new taxon whose closest relatives are stolbur phytoplasma strains and ‘ Phytoplasma fragariae ’ with which they share 97.2 % and 97.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that bindweed yellows phytoplasma strains collectively represent a distinct lineage within the phytoplasma clade and share a common ancestor with previously published or proposed ‘ Phytoplasma’ taxa within a major branch including aster yellows and stolbur phytoplasmas. On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties that include a single host plant species and a geographical distribution limited to parts of Europe, the bindweed yellows (BY) phytoplasmas represent a coherent but discrete taxon, ‘ Phytoplasma convolvuli’, with strain BY-S57/11 (GenBank accession no. JN833705) as the reference strain.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.038612-0
2012-12-01
2019-12-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/62/12/2910.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.038612-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altschul S. F. , Madden T. L. , Schäffer A. A. , Zhang J. , Zhang Z. , Miller W. , Lipman D. J. . ( 1997; ). Gapped blast and psi-blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. . Nucleic Acids Res 25:, 3389–3402. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bertaccini A. . ( 2007; ). Phytoplasmas: diversity, taxonomy, and epidemiology. . Front Biosci 12:, 673–689. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bertaccini A. . ( 2010; ). http://ipwgnet.org/doc/phyto_collection/collection-august2010.pdf (last accessed October 5th, 2011).
  4. Bertaccini A. , Duduk B. . ( 2009; ). Phytoplasma and phytoplasma diseases: a review of recent research. . Phytopathol Mediterr 48:, 355–378.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brown D. . ( 2010; ). Phylum XVI. Tenericutes Murray 1984a, 356vp (Effective publication: Murray 1984b, 33.). . In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, , 2nd edn., vol. 4, pp. 567–723. Edited by Krieg N. R. , Ludwig W. , Whitman W. B. , Hedlund B. P. , Paster B. J. , Staley J. T. , Ward N. , Brown D. , Parte A. . . New York:: Springer;. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Davis R. E. , Zhao Y. , Dally E. L. , Jomantiene R. , Lee I.-M. , Wei W. , Kitajima E. W. . ( 2011; ). Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum’, a novel taxon, and strain PassWB-Br4, a new subgroup 16SrIII-V phytoplasma, from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.). . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 62:, 984–989. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Deng S. , Hiruki C. . ( 1991; ). Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable mollicutes. . J Microbiol Methods 14:, 53–61. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Doyle J. J. , Doyle J. L. . ( 1990; ). Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. . Focus 12:, 13–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Duduk B. , Bertaccini A. . ( 2011; ). Phytoplasma classification: taxonomy based on 16S ribosomal gene, is it enough?. Phytopathogenic Mollicutes 1:, 3–13.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gundersen D. E. , Lee I.-M. . ( 1996; ). Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested-PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. . Phytopathol Mediterr 35:, 144–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hall T. A. . ( 1999; ). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. . Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:, 95–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hogenhout S. A. , Oshima K. , Ammar D. , Kakizawa S. , Kingdom H. N. , Namba S. . ( 2008; ). Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects. . Mol Plant Pathol 9:, 403–423. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. IRPCM ( 2004; ). Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:, 1243–1255. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lapage S. P. , Sneath P. H. A. , Lessel E. F. , Skerman V. B. D. , Seeliger H. P. R. , Clark W. A. . ( 1992; ). International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria: Bacteriological Code. 1990 Revision. Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology;.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lee I.-M. , Gundersen-Rindal D. E. , Davis R. E. , Bartoszyk I. M. . ( 1998; ). Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:, 1153–1169. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lee I.-M. , Martini M. , Marcone C. , Zhu S. F. . ( 2004; ). Classification of phytoplasma strains in the elm yellows group (16SrV) and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ for the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:, 337–347. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lee I. M. , Bottner-Parker K. D. , Zhao Y. , Villalobos W. , Moreira L. . ( 2011; ). Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum’ a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging disease in soybean (Glycine max). . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:, 2822–2826. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Maixner M. . ( 1994; ). Transmission of German grapevine yellows (Vergilbungskrankheit) by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae). . Vitis 33:, 103–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Malembic-Maher S. , Salar P. , Filippin L. , Carle P. , Angelini E. , Foissac X. . ( 2011; ). Genetic diversity of European phytoplasmas of the 16SrV taxonomic group and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi’. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:, 2129–2134. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Marcone C. , Ragozzino A. , Seemüller E. . ( 1997; ). Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in yellows-diseased weeds in Italy. . Plant Pathol 46:, 530–537. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Martini M. , Carraro L. , Marcone C. , Maixner M. , Delic D. , Myrta A. . ( 2008; ). Caratterizzazione molecolare di fitoplasmi associati a giallume in convolvolo. . Petria 18:, 341–344.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Murray R. G. E. , Stackebrandt E. . ( 1995; ). Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:, 186–187. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Schneider B. , Seemüller E. , Smart C. D. , Kirkpatrick B. C. . ( 1995; ). Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms or phytoplasmas. . In Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology, pp. 369–380. Edited by Razin S. . . San Diego:: Academic Press;. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Seemüller E. , Marcone C. , Lauer U. , Ragozzino A. , Göeschl M. . ( 1998; ). Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. . J Plant Pathol 80:, 3–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Sforza R. , Clair D. , Daire X. , Larrue J. , Boudon-Padieu E. . ( 1998; ). The role of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) in the occurrence of bois noir of grapevines in France. . J Phytopathol 146:, 549–556. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Smart C. D. , Schneider B. , Blomquist C. L. , Guerra L. J. , Harrison N. A. , Ahrens U. , Lorenz K.-H. , Seemüller E. , Kirkpatrick B. C. . ( 1996; ). Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. . Appl Environ Microbiol 62:, 2988–2993.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Staden R. , Beal K. F. , Bonfield J. K. . ( 2000; ). The Staden package, 1998. . Methods Mol Biol 132:, 115–130.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tamura K. , Peterson D. , Peterson N. , Stecher G. , Nei M. , Kumar S. . ( 2011; ). mega5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. . Mol Biol Evol 28:, 2731–2739. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Thompson J. D. , Gibson T. J. , Plewniak F. , Jeanmougin F. , Higgins D. G. . ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. . Nucleic Acids Res 25:, 4876–4882. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Weintraub P. G. , Beanland L. A. . ( 2006; ). Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. . Annu Rev Entomol 51:, 91–111. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Zhao Y. , Wei W. , Lee I.-M. , Shao J. , Suo X. , Davis R. E. . ( 2009; ). Construction of an interactive online phytoplasma classification tool, iPhyClassifier, and its application in analysis of the peach X-disease phytoplasma group (16SrIII). . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:, 2582–2593. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.038612-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.038612-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error