1887

Abstract

A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, psychrophilic bacterium, designated strain Cr6-08, was isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite. Growth of strain Cr6-08 occurred at 1–25 °C. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Cr6-08 is most closely related to members of the genus . Strain Cr6-08 possessed chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus , such as peptidoglycan type A3α (-Lys–-Ala), MK-9(H) as major menaquinone and anteiso- and iso-branched compounds (anteiso-C and iso-C) as major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unknown glycolipid and three unknown polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Cr6-08 was 57.3 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA–DNA relatedness data, strain Cr6-08 is considered to represent a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Cr6-08 ( = DSM 23324  = LMG 26052  = CGMCC 1.10698).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.031138-0
2012-02-01
2019-12-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/62/2/397.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.031138-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Cavicchioli R. . ( 2006; ). Cold-adapted archaea. . Nat Rev Microbiol 4:, 331–343. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Collins M. D. . ( 1985; ). Isoprenoid quinone analysis in classification and identification. . In Chemical Methods in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 267–287. Edited by Goodfellow M. , Minnikin D. E. . . London:: Academic Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Collins M. D. , Jones D. . ( 1981; ). Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication. . Microbiol Rev 45:, 316–354.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Collins M. D. , Kroppenstedt R. M. . ( 1983; ). Lipid composition as a guide to the classification of some coryneform bacteria containing an A4 type peptidoglycan (Schleifer and Kandler). . Syst Appl Microbiol 4:, 95–104. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Conn H. J. , Dimmick I. . ( 1947; ). Soil bacteria similar in morphology to Mycobacterium and Corynebacterium . . J Bacteriol 54:, 291–303.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. De Ley J. , Cattoir H. , Reynaerts A. . ( 1970; ). The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. . Eur J Biochem 12:, 133–142. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Felsenstein J. . ( 2009; ). phylip (phylogeny inference package), version 3.69. Distributed by the author. Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
  8. Ganzert L. , Bajerski F. , Mangelsdorf K. , Lipski A. , Wagner D. . ( 2011; ). Arthrobacter livingstonensis sp. nov. and Arthrobacter cryotolerans sp. nov., salt-tolerant and psychrotolerant species isolated from Antarctica soil. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:, 979–984. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Heyrman J. , Verbeeren J. , Schumann P. , Swings J. , De Vos P. . ( 2005; ). Six novel Arthrobacter species isolated from deteriorated mural paintings. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:, 1457–1464. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Huß V. A. R. , Festl H. , Schleifer K. H. . ( 1983; ). Studies on the spectrophotometric determination of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. . Syst Appl Microbiol 4:, 184–192.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kallimanis A. , Kavakiotis K. , Perisynakis A. , Spröer C. , Pukall R. , Drainas C. , Koukkou A. I. . ( 2009; ). Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans sp. nov., to accommodate the phenanthrene-degrading bacterium Arthrobacter sp. strain Sphe3. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:, 275–279. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kates M. . ( 1986; ). Techniques of Lipidology, , 2nd edn.. Amsterdam:: Elsevier;.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Keddie R. M. , Collins M. D. , Jones D. . ( 1986; ). Genus Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick 1947, 300AL . . In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, pp. 1288–1301. Edited by Sneath P. H. A. , Mair N. S. , Sharpe M. E. , Holt J. G. . . Baltimore:: Williams & Wilkins;.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Koch C. , Schumann P. , Stackebrandt E. . ( 1995; ). Reclassification of Micrococcus agilis (Ali-Cohen 1889) to the genus Arthrobacter as Arthrobacter agilis comb. nov. and emendation of the genus Arthrobacter . . Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:, 837–839. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Loveland-Curtze J. , Sheridan P. P. , Gutshall K. R. , Brenchley J. E. . ( 1999; ). Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses of psychrophilic isolates belonging to the Arthrobacter subgroup and description of Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus, sp. nov.. Arch Microbiol 171:, 355–363. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. MacKenzie S. L. . ( 1987; ). Gas chromatographic analysis of amino acids as the N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl esters. . J Assoc Off Anal Chem 70:, 151–160.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Margesin R. . ( 2009; ). Effect of temperature on growth parameters of psychrophilic bacteria and yeasts. . Extremophiles 13:, 257–262. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Margesin R. , Zacke G. , Schinner F. . ( 2002; ). Characterization of heterotrophic microorganisms in alpine glacier cryoconite. . Arct Antarct Alp Res 34:, 88–93. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Margesin R. , Gander S. , Zacke G. , Gounot A. M. , Schinner F. . ( 2003; ). Hydrocarbon degradation and enzyme activities of cold-adapted bacteria and yeasts. . Extremophiles 7:, 451–458. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Margesin R. , Schumann P. , Spröer C. , Gounot A. M. . ( 2004; ). Arthrobacter psychrophenolicus sp. nov., isolated from an alpine ice cave. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:, 2067–2072. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Margesin R. , Schinner F. , Marx J. C. , Gerday C. . (editors) ( 2008; ). Psychrophiles: from Biodiversity to Biotechnology. Berlin:: Springer;. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Marmur J. , Doty P. . ( 1962; ). Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation temperature. . J Mol Biol 5:, 109–118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Minnikin D. E. , Goodfellow M. , Collins M. D. . ( 1978; ). Lipid composition in the classification and identification of coryneform and related taxa. . In Coryneform Bacteria, pp. 85–160. Edited by Bousfield I. J. , Callely A. G. . . London:: Academic Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Morita R. Y. . ( 1975; ). Psychrophilic bacteria. . Bacteriol Rev 39:, 144–167.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pindi P. K. , Manorama R. , Begum Z. , Shivaji S. . ( 2010; ). Arthrobacter antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from an Antarctic marine sediment. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:, 2263–2266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Reasoner D. J. , Geldreich E. E. . ( 1985; ). A new medium for the enumeration and subculture of bacteria from potable water. . Appl Environ Microbiol 49:, 1–7.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Reddy G. S. N. , Aggarwal R. K. , Matsumoto G. I. , Shivaji S. . ( 2000; ). Arthrobacter flavus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from a pond in McMurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:, 1553–1561. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Reddy G. S. N. , Prakash J. S. S. , Matsumoto G. I. , Stackebrandt E. , Shivaji S. . ( 2002; ). Arthrobacter roseus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from an antarctic cyanobacterial mat sample. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:, 1017–1021. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sambrook J. , Fritsch E. F. , Maniatis T. . ( 1989; ). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, , 2nd edn.. Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sasser M. . ( 1990; ). Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids, MIDI Technical Note 101. . Newark, DE:: MIDI Inc.;
  31. Schleifer K. H. . ( 1985; ). Analysis of the chemical composition and primary structure of murein. . Methods Microbiol 18:, 123–156. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schleifer K. H. , Kandler O. . ( 1972; ). Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. . Bacteriol Rev 36:, 407–477.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Stackebrandt E. , Schumann P. . ( 2006; ). Introduction to the taxonomy of actinobacteria. . In The Prokaryotes. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, , 3rd edn., vol. 3, pp. 297–321. Edited by Dworkin M. , Falkow S. , Rosenberg E. , Schleifer K. H. , Stackebrandt E. . . New York:: Springer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Stackebrandt E. , Fowler V. J. , Fiedler F. , Seiler H. . ( 1983; ). Taxonomic studies on Arthrobacter nicotianae and related taxa: description of Arthrobacter uratoxydans sp. nov. and Arthrobacter sulfureus sp. nov. and reclassification of Brevibacterium protophormiae as Arthrobacter protophormiae comb. nov.. Syst Appl Microbiol 4:, 470–486.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Staneck J. L. , Roberts G. D. . ( 1974; ). Simplified approach to identification of aerobic actinomycetes by thin-layer chromatography. . Appl Microbiol 28:, 226–231.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tamura K. , Dudley J. , Nei M. , Kumar S. . ( 2007; ). mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. . Mol Biol Evol 24:, 1596–1599. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Thompson J. D. , Gibson T. J. , Plewniak F. , Jeanmougin F. , Higgins D. G. . ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. . Nucleic Acids Res 25:, 4876–4882. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tvrzová L. , Schumann P. , Spröer C. , Sedláček I. , Verbarg S. , Kroppenstedt R. M. , Páčová Z. . ( 2005; ). Polyphasic taxonomic study of strain CCM 2783 resulting in the description of Arthrobacter stackebrandtii sp. nov.. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:, 805–808. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Wayne L. G. , Brenner D. J. , Colwell R. R. , Grimont P. A. D. , Kandler O. , Krichevsky M. I. , Moore L. H. , Moore W. E. C. , Murray R. G. E. . & other authors ( 1987; ). International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches of bacterial systematics. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:, 463–464. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Westerberg K. , Elväng A. M. , Stackebrandt E. , Jansson J. K. . ( 2000; ). Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus sp. nov., a new species capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:, 2083–2092. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Whiton R. S. , Lau P. , Morgan S. L. , Gilbart J. , Fox A. . ( 1985; ). Modifications in the alditol acetate method for analysis of muramic acid and other neutral and amino sugars by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. . J Chromatogr A 347:, 109–120. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Wu C. , Lu X. , Qin M. , Wang Y. , Ruan J. . ( 1989; ). Analysis of menaquinone compound in microbial cells by HPLC. . Microbiology (English translation of Mikrobiologiia) 16:, 176–178.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Zhang D.-C. , Schumann P. , Liu H.-C. , Xin Y.-H. , Zhou Y.-G. , Schinner F. , Margesin R. . ( 2010; ). Arthrobacter alpinus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from alpine soil. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:, 2149–2153. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Zhang D.-C. , Redzic M. , Schinner F. , Margesin R. . ( 2011; ). Glaciimonas immobilis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Oxalobacteraceae isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:, 2186–2190. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.031138-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.031138-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary Fig. S1 

PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error