1887

Abstract

The trivial name ‘phytoplasma’ has been adopted to collectively name wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects, which were formerly known as mycoplasma-like organisms. Although phytoplasmas have not yet been cultivated , phylogenetic analyses based on various conserved genes have shown that they represent a distinct, monophyletic clade within the class . It is proposed here to accommodate phytoplasmas within the novel genus ‘ () Phytoplasma’. Given the diversity within ‘ Phytoplasma’, several subtaxa are needed to accommodate organisms that share <97·5 % similarity among their 16S rRNA gene sequences. This report describes the properties of ‘ Phytoplasma’, a taxon that includes the species ‘ Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ (the prokaryote associated with witches'-broom disease of small-fruited acid lime), ‘ Phytoplasma australiense’ (associated with Australian grapevine yellows), ‘ Phytoplasma fraxini’ (associated with ash yellows), ‘ Phytoplasma japonicum’ (associated with Japanese hydrangea phyllody), ‘ Phytoplasma brasiliense’ (associated with hibiscus witches'-broom in Brazil), ‘ Phytoplasma castaneae’ (associated with chestnut witches'-broom in Korea), ‘ Phytoplasma asteris' (associated with aster yellows), ‘ Phytoplasma mali’ (associated with apple proliferation), ‘ Phytoplasma phoenicium’ (associated with almond lethal disease), ‘ Phytoplasma trifolii’ (associated with clover proliferation), ‘ Phytoplasma cynodontis' (associated with Bermuda grass white leaf), ‘ Phytoplasma ziziphi’ (associated with jujube witches'-broom), ‘ Phytoplasma oryzae’ (associated with rice yellow dwarf) and six species-level taxa for which the species designation has not yet been formally proposed (for the phytoplasmas associated with X-disease of peach, grapevine flavescence dorée, Central American coconut lethal yellows, Tanzanian lethal decline of coconut, Nigerian lethal decline of coconut and loofah witches'-broom, respectively). Additional species are needed to accommodate organisms that, despite their 16S rRNA gene sequence being >97·5 % similar to those of other ‘ Phytoplasma’ species, are characterized by distinctive biological, phytopathological and genetic properties. These include ‘ Phytoplasma pyri’ (associated with pear decline), ‘ Phytoplasma prunorum’ (associated with European stone fruit yellows), ‘ Phytoplasma spartii’ (associated with spartium witches'-broom), ‘ Phytoplasma rhamni’ (associated with buckthorn witches'-broom), ‘ Phytoplasma allocasuarinae’ (associated with allocasuarina yellows), ‘ Phytoplasma ulmi’ (associated with elm yellows) and an additional taxon for the stolbur phytoplasma. Conversely, some organisms, despite their 16S rRNA gene sequence being <97·5 % similar to that of any other ‘ Phytoplasma’ species, are not presently described as species, due to their poor overall characterization.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02854-0
2004-07-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/54/4/ijs541243.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02854-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahrens, U. & Seemüller, E. ( 1992; ). Detection of DNA of plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms by a polymerase chain reaction that amplifies a sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Phytopathology 82, 828–832.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahrens, U., Lorenz, K.-H. & Seemüller, E. ( 1993; ). Genetic diversity among mycoplasmalike organisms associated with stone fruit diseases. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 6, 686–691.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bertaccini, A., Davis, R. E. & Lee, I.-M. ( 1990; ). Distinctions among mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in Gladiolus, Ranunculus, Brassica and Hydrangea through detection with non-radioactive cloned DNA probes. Phytopathol Mediterr 29, 107–113.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Botti, S. & Bertaccini, A. ( 2003; ). Variability and functional role of chromosomal sequences in 16SrI-B subgroup phytoplasmas including aster yellows and related strains. J Appl Microbiol 94, 103–110.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chen, K. H., Credi, R., Loi, N., Maixner, M. & Chen, T. A. ( 1994; ). Identification and grouping of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with grapevine yellows and clover phyllody diseases based on immunological and molecular analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol 60, 1905–1913.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Daire, X., Boudon-Padieu, E., Bervillé, A., Schneider, B. & Caudwell, A. ( 1992; ). Cloned DNA probes for detection of grapevine flavescence dorée mycoplasma-like organism (MLO). Ann Appl Biol 121, 95–103.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Davis, R. E. & Sinclair, W. A. ( 1998; ). Phytoplasma identity and disease etiology. Phytopathology 88, 1372–1376.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Davis, R. E., Sinclair, W. A., Lee, I.-M. & Dally, E. L. ( 1992a; ). Cloned DNA probes specific for detection of a mycoplasmalike organism associated with ash yellows. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 5, 163–169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Davis, R. E., Dally, E. L., Bertaccini, A., Credi, R., Lee, I.-M., Osler, R., Carraro, L. & Barba, M. ( 1992b; ). Cloned DNA probes for specific detection of Italian periwinkle virescence mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) and investigation of genetic relatedness with other MLOs. Phytopathol Mediterr 31, 5–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Davis, R. E., Dally, E. L., Gundersen, D. E., Lee, I.-M. & Habili, N. ( 1997; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense,” a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 262–269.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. De Marta, P. & Firrao, G. ( 2003; ). aliscan. Development release (http://www.biodiv.it/aliscan/).
  12. Deng, S. & Hiruki, C. ( 1991; ). Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable mollicutes. J Microbiol Methods 14, 53–61.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Doi, Y., Teranaka, M., Yora, K. & Asuyama, H. ( 1967; ). Mycoplasma or PLT group-like microorganisms found in the phloem elements of plants infected with mulberry dwarf, potato witches' broom, aster yellows, or Paulownia witches' broom. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 33, 259–266.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Felsenstein, F. ( 1995; ). phylip (Phylogeny Inference Package) version 3.57c. Seattle: University of Washington.
  15. Firrao, G., Gobbi, E. & Locci, R. ( 1993; ). Use of polymerase chain reaction to produce oligonucleotide probes for mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology 83, 602–607.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Firrao, G., Carraro, L., Gobbi, E. & Locci, R. ( 1996a; ). Molecular characterization of a phytoplasma causing phyllody in clover and other herbaceous hosts in northern Italy. Eur J Plant Pathol 102, 817–822.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Firrao, G., Smart, C. D. & Kirkpatrick, B. C. ( 1996b; ). Physical map of the western X-disease phytoplasma chromosome. J Bacteriol 178, 3985–3988.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fox, G. E., Wisotzkey, J. D. & Jurtshuk, P., Jr ( 1992; ). How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42, 166–170.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gilbert, D. G. ( 1996; ). seqpup. Development release (ftp://iubio.bio.indiana.edu/molbio/seqpup/).
  20. Griffiths, H. M., Gundersen, D. E., Sinclair, W. A., Lee, I.-M. & Davis, R. E. ( 1994; ). Mycoplasmalike organisms from milkweed, goldenrod, and spirea represent two new 16S rRNA subgroups and three new strain subclusters related to peach X-disease MLOs. Can J Plant Pathol 16, 255–260.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Griffiths, H. M., Sinclair, W. A., Smart, C. D. & Davis, R. E. ( 1999; ). The phytoplasma associated with ash yellows and lilac witches'-broom: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1605–1614.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gundersen, D. E. & Lee, I.-M. ( 1996; ). Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested-PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. Phytopathol Mediterr 35, 144–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gundersen, D. E., Lee, I.-M., Rehner, S. A., Davis, R. E. & Kingsbury, D. T. ( 1994; ). Phylogeny of mycoplasmalike organisms (phytoplasmas): a basis for their classification. J Bacteriol 176, 5244–5254.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Guo, Y. H., Cheng, Z.-M. & Walla, J. A. ( 1998; ). Amplification and RFLP analysis of 23S ribosomal DNA from phytoplasmas. Phytopathology 88, S35.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Harrison, N. A., Tsai, J. H., Bourne, C. M. & Richardson, P. A. ( 1991; ). Molecular cloning and detection of chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with witches'-broom disease of pigeon pea in Florida. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 4, 300–307.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Harrison, N. A., Bourne, C. M., Cox, R. L., Tsai, J. H. & Richardson, P. A. ( 1992; ). DNA probes for detection of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with lethal yellowing disease of palms in Florida. Phytopathology 82, 216–224.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hibben, C. R., Sinclair, W. A., Davis, R. E. & Alexander, J. H., III ( 1991; ). Relatedness of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with ash yellows and lilac witches'-broom. Plant Dis 75, 1227–1230.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hiruki, C. & Wang, K. ( 2004; ). Clover proliferation phytoplasma: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1349–1353.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes ( 1993; ). Minutes of the interim meetings, 1 and 2 August, 1992, Ames, Iowa. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43, 394–397.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ishiie, T., Doi, Y., Yora, K. & Asuyama, H. ( 1967; ). Suppressive effects of antibiotics of tetracycline group on symptom development of mulberry dwarf disease. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 33, 267–275.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Jomantiene, R., Davis, R. E., Maas, J. & Dally, E. L. ( 1998; ). Classification of new phytoplasmas associated with diseases of strawberry in Florida, based on analysis of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene operon sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 269–277.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jomantiene, R., Davis, R. E., Valiunas, D., Alminaite, A. & Staniulis, J. ( 2002; ). New group 16SrIII phytoplasma lineages in Lithuania exhibit rRNA interoperon sequence heterogeneity. Eur J Plant Pathol 108, 507–517.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Jukes, T. H. & Cantor, C. R. ( 1969; ). Evolution of protein molecules. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, pp. 21–132. Edited by H. N. Munro. New York: Academic Press.
  34. Jung, H.-Y., Sawayanagi, T., Kakizawa, S. & 7 other authors ( 2002; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches' broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1543–1549.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Jung, H.-Y., Sawayanagi, T., Kakizawa, S. & 7 other authors ( 2003a; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with jujube witches'-broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 1037–1041.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Jung, H. Y., Sawayanagi, T., Wongkaew, P. & 8 other authors ( 2003b; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 1925–1929.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kirkpatrick, B. C. ( 1992; ). Mycoplasma-like organisms: plant and invertebrate pathogens. In The Prokaryotes, 2nd edn, pp. 4050–4067. Edited by A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K. H. Schleifer. New York: Springer.
  38. Kirkpatrick, B. C., Smart, C. D., Gardner, S. & 9 other authors ( 1994; ). Phylogenetic relationship of plant pathogenic MLOs established by 16/23S rDNA spacer sequences. IOM Lett 3, 228–229.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kollar, A. & Seemüller, E. ( 1989; ). Base composition of the DNA of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with various plant diseases. J Phytopathol 127, 177–186.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kuske, C. R. & Kirkpatrick, B. C. ( 1992; ). Phylogenetic relationships between the western aster yellows mycoplasmalike organisms and other prokaryotes established by 16S rRNA gene sequence. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42, 226–233.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kuske, C. R., Kirkpatrick, B. C., Davis, M. J. & Seemüller, E. ( 1991; ). DNA hybridization between western aster yellows mycoplasmalike organism plasmids and extrachromosomal DNA from other plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 4, 75–80.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Lauer, U. & Seemüller, E. ( 2000; ). Physical map of the chromosome of the apple proliferation phytoplasma. J Bacteriol 182, 1415–1418.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lee, I.-M. & Davis, R. E. ( 1988; ). Detection and investigation of genetic relatedness among aster yellows and other mycoplasma-like organisms by using cloned DNA and RNA probes. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 1, 303–310.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lee, I.-M., Davis, R. E. & Hiruki, C. ( 1991; ). Genetic interrelatedness among clover proliferation mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and other MLOs investigated by nucleic acid hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol 57, 3565–3569.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Lee, I.-M., Davis, R. E., Chen, T.-A., Chiykowski, L. N., Fletcher, J., Hiruki, C. & Schaff, D. A. ( 1992a; ). A genotype-based system for identification and classification of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in the aster yellows MLO strain cluster. Phytopathology 82, 977–986.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lee, I.-M., Gundersen, D. E., Davis, R. E. & Chiykowski, L. N. ( 1992b; ). Identification and analysis of a genomic strain cluster of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with Canadian peach (eastern) X disease, western X disease, and clover yellow edge. J Bacteriol 174, 6694–6698.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Lee, I.-M., Davis, R. E., Sinclair, W. A., DeWitt, N. D. & Conti, M. ( 1993a; ). Genetic relatedness of mycoplasmalike organisms detected in Ulmus spp. in the United States and Italy by means of DNA probes and polymerase chain reactions. Phytopathology 83, 829–833.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lee, I.-M., Hammond, R. W., Davis, R. E. & Gundersen, D. E. ( 1993b; ). Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology 83, 834–842.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Lee, I.-M., Gundersen-Rindal, D. E., Davis, R. E. & Bartoszyk, I. M. ( 1998; ). Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 1153–1169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Lee, I.-M., Davis, R. E. & Gundersen-Rindal, D. E. ( 2000; ). Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annu Rev Microbiol 54, 221–255.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lee, I.-M., Gundersen-Rindal, D. E., Davis, R. E., Bottner, K. D., Marcone, C. & Seemüller, E. ( 2004a; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with aster yellows and related diseases. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1037–1048.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Lee, I.-M., Martini, M., Marcone, C. & Zhu, S. F. ( 2004b; ). Classification of phytoplasma strains in the elm yellows group (16SrV) and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ for the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 337–347.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Liefting, L. W., Andersen, M. T., Beever, R. E., Gardner, R. C. & Foster, R. L. S. ( 1996; ). Sequence heterogeneity in the two 16S rRNA genes of Phormium yellow leaf phytoplasma. Appl Environ Microbiol 62, 3133–3139.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Lim, P.-O. & Sears, B. B. ( 1989; ). 16S rRNA sequence indicates that plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms are evolutionarily distinct from animal mycoplasmas. J Bacteriol 171, 5901–5906.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Lim, P.-O. & Sears, B. B. ( 1991; ). DNA sequence of the ribosomal protein genes rp12 and rps19 from a plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organism. FEMS Microbiol Lett 84, 71–73.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lim, P.-O., Sears, B. B. & Klomparens, K. L. ( 1992; ). Membrane properties of a plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organism. J Bacteriol 174, 682–686.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Marcone, C. & Seemüller, E. ( 2001; ). A chromosome map of the European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma. Microbiology 147, 1213–1221.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Marcone, C., Neimark, H., Ragozzino, A., Lauer, U. & Seemüller, E. ( 1999; ). Chromosome sizes of phytoplasmas composing major phylogenetic groups and subgroups. Phytopathology 89, 805–810.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Marcone, C., Gibb, K. S., Streten, C. & Schneider, B. ( 2004a; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae’, respectively associated with spartium witches'-broom, buckthorn witches'-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1025–1029.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Marcone, C., Schneider, B. & Seemüller, E. ( 2004b; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’, the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1077–1082.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Mäurer, R., Seemüller, E. & Sinclair, W. A. ( 1993; ). Genetic relatedness of mycoplasmalike organisms affecting elm, alder, and ash in Europe and North America. Phytopathology 83, 971–976.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. McCoy, R. E., Caudwell, A., Chang, C. J. & 16 other authors ( 1989; ). Plant diseases associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. In The Mycoplasmas, vol. 5, pp. 545–640. Edited by R. F. Whitcomb & J. G. Tully. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  63. Montano, H. G., Davis, R. E., Dally, E. L., Hogenhout, S., Pimentel, J. P. & Brioso, P. S. T. ( 2001; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches'-broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1109–1118.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Murray, R. G. E. & Schleifer, K. H. ( 1994; ). Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 174–176.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Murray, R. G. E. & Stackebrandt, E. ( 1995; ). Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 186–187.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Namba, S., Kato, S., Iwanami, S., Oyaizu, H., Shiozawa, H. & Tsuchizaki, T. ( 1993a; ). Detection and differentiation of plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms using polymerase chain reaction. Phytopathology 83, 786–791.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Namba, S., Oyaizu, H., Kato, S., Iwanami, S. & Tsuchizaki, T. ( 1993b; ). Phylogenetic diversity of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike orgnisms. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43, 461–467.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Neimark, H. & Kirkpatrick, B. C. ( 1993; ). Isolation and characterization of full-length chromosomes from non-culturable plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms. Mol Microbiol 7, 21–28.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Padovan, A. C., Gibb, K. S., Bertaccini, A., Vibio, M., Bonfiglioli, R. E., Magarey, P. A. & Sears, B. B. ( 1995; ). Molecular detection of the Australian grapevine yellows phytoplasma and comparison with grapevine yellows phytoplasmas from Italy. Aust J Grape Wine Res 1, 25–31.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Padovan, A. C., Firrao, G., Schneider, B. & Gibb, K. S. ( 2000; ). Chromosome mapping of the sweet potato little leaf phytoplasma reveals genome heterogeneity within the phytoplasmas. Microbiology 146, 893–902.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team of the International Research Project for Comparative Mycoplasmology ( 2000; ). Phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas, mesoplasmas, and entomoplasmas working team. In International Research Programme on Comparative Mycoplasmology (IRPCM) of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology (IOM) – Report of Consultations, Fukuoka, Japan, July 2000 (http://mycoplasmas.vm.iastate.edu/IOM/).
  72. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Sawayanagi, T., Horikoshi, N., Kanehira, T., Shinohara, M., Bertaccini, A., Cousin M.-T., Hiruki, C. & Namba, S. ( 1999; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Japanese Hydrangea phyllody. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1275–1285.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Schneider, B. & Seemüller, E. ( 1994; ). Presence of two sets of ribosomal genes in phytopathogenic mollicutes. Appl Environ Microbiol 60, 3409–3412.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Schneider, B., Ahrens, U., Kirkpatrick, B. C. & Seemüller, E. ( 1993; ). Classification of plant-pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms using restriction-site analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA. J Gen Microbiol 139, 519–527.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Schneider, B., Gibb, K. S. & Seemüller, E. ( 1997a; ). Sequence and RFLP analysis of the elongation factor Tu gene used in differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas. Microbiology 143, 3381–3389.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Schneider, B., Marcone, C., Kampmann, M., Ragozzino, A., Lederer, W., Cousin, M.-T. & Seemüller, E. ( 1997b; ). Characterization and classification of phytoplasmas from wild and cultivated plants by RFLP and sequence analysis of ribosomal DNA. Eur J Plant Pathol 103, 675–686.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Sears, B. B. & Kirkpatrick, B. C. ( 1994; ). Unveiling the evolutionary relationships of plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. ASM News 60, 307–312.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Sears, B. B., Lim, P.-O., Holland, N., Kirkpatrick, B. C. & Klomparens, K. L. ( 1989; ). Isolation and characterization of DNA from a mycoplasma-like organism. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 2, 175–180.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Seemüller, E. & Schneider, B. ( 2004; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1217–1226.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Seemüller, E., Schneider, B., Mäurer, R. & 8 other authors ( 1994; ). Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 440–446.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Seemüller, E., Marcone, C., Lauer, U., Ragozzino, A. & Göschl, M. ( 1998; ). Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. J Plant Pathol 80, 3–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Seemüller, E., Garnier, M. & Schneider, B. ( 2002; ). Mycoplasmas of plants and insects. In Molecular Biology and Pathology of Mycoplasmas, pp. 91–116. Edited by S. Razin & R. Herrmann. London: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
  84. Shiomi, T. & Sugiura, M. ( 1984; ). Grouping of mycoplasma-like organisms transmitted by the leafhopper vector, Macrosteles orientalis Virvaste, based on host range. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 50, 149–157.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Smart, C. D., Sears, B. B. & Kirkpatrick, B. C. ( 1994; ). Analysis of evolutionary relationships between MLOs and other members of the class Mollicutes based on 16/23S rRNA intergenic sequences. IOM Lett 3, 269–270.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Smart, C. D., Schneider, B., Blomquist, C. L., Guerra, L. J., Harrison, N. A., Ahrens, U., Lorenz, K. H., Seemüller, E. & Kirkpatrick, B. C. ( 1996; ). Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Appl Environ Microbiol 62, 2988–2993.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Stackebrandt, E. & Goebel, B. M. ( 1994; ). Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 846–849.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Stackebrandt, E., Frederiksen, W., Garrity, G. M. & 10 other authors ( 2002; ). Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1043–1047.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Toth, K. F., Harrison, N. & Sears, B. B. ( 1994; ). Phylogenetic relationships among members of the class Mollicutes deduced from rps3 gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 119–124.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Tsai, J. H. ( 1979; ). Vector transmission of mycoplasmal agents of plant diseases. In The Mycoplasmas, vol. 3, pp. 265–307. Edited by R. E. Whitcomb & J. G. Tully. San Diego, CANew York, NY: Academic Press.
  92. Tymon, A. M., Jones, P. & Harrison, N. A. ( 1998; ). Phylogenetic relationships of coconut phytoplasmas and the development of specific oligonucleotide PCR primers. Ann Appl Biol 132, 437–452.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Verdin, E., Salar, P., Danet, J.-L., Choueiri, E., Jreijiri, F., El Zammar, S., Gélie, B., Bové, J. M. & Garnier, M. ( 2003; ).Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’, a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging lethal disease of almond trees in Lebanon and Iran. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 833–838.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Vibio, M., Bertaccini, A., Lee, I.-M., Davis, R. E. & Clark, M. F. ( 1996; ). Differentiation and classification of aster yellows and related European phytoplasmas. Phytopathol Mediterr 35, 33–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. White, D. T., Blackall, L. L., Scott, P. T. & Walsh, K. B. ( 1998; ). Phylogenetic positions of phytoplasmas associated with dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic diseases of papaya, and their proposed inclusion in ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ and a new taxon, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 941–951.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Zreik, L., Carle, P., Bové, J. M. & Garnier, M. ( 1995; ). Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches'-broom disease of lime and proposition of a “Candidatus” taxon for the organism, “Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia”. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 449–453.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02854-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02854-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error