1887

Abstract

Bermuda grass white leaf (BGWL) is a destructive, phytoplasmal disease of Bermuda grass (). The causal pathogen, the BGWL agent, differs from other phytoplasmas that cluster in the same major branch of the phytoplasma phylogenetic clade in <2·5 % of 16S rDNA nucleotide positions, the threshold for assigning species rank to phytoplasmas under the provisional status ‘’. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine homogeneity of BGWL isolates and to determine whether there are, in addition to 16S rDNA, other markers that support delineation of the BGWL agent at the putative species level. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the 16S rDNA sequences of BGWL strains were identical or nearly identical. Clear differences that support separation of the BGWL agent from related phytoplasmas were observed within the 16S–23S rDNA spacer sequence, by serological comparisons, in vector transmission and in host-range specificity. From these results, it can be concluded that the BGWL phytoplasma is a discrete taxon at the putative species level, for which the name ‘ Phytoplasma cynodontis' is proposed. Strain BGWL-C1 was selected as the reference strain. Phytoplasmas that are associated with brachiaria white leaf, carpet grass white leaf and diseases of date palms showed 16S rDNA and/or 16S–23S rDNA spacer sequences that were identical or nearly identical to those of the BGWL phytoplasmas. However, the data available do not seem to be sufficient for a proper taxonomic assignment of these phytoplasmas.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02837-0
2004-07-01
2019-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/54/4/ijs541077.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02837-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Anonymous ( 1979; ). Annual Report 1978–79. Tainan, Taiwan: Taiwan Sugar Research Institute.
  2. Blanche, K. R., Tran-Nguyen, L. T. T. & Gibb, K. S. ( 2003; ). Detection, identification and significance of phytoplasmas in grasses in northern Australia. Plant Pathol 52, 505–512.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen, T. C., Lee, C. S. & Chen, M. J. ( 1972; ). Mycoplasmalike organisms in Cynodon dactylon and Brachiaria distachya affected by white leaf disease. Rep Taiwan Sugar Exp Stn 56, 49–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cronjé, P., Dabek, A. J., Jones, P. & Tymon, A. M. ( 2000a; ). First report of a phytoplasma associated with a disease of date palms in North Africa. Plant Pathol 49, 801.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cronjé, P., Dabek, A. J., Jones, P. & Tymon, A. M. ( 2000b; ). Slow decline: a new disease of mature date palms in North Africa associated with a phytoplasma. Plant Pathol 49, 804.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dafalla, G. A. & Cousin, M.-T. ( 1988; ). Fluorescence and electron microscopy of Cynodon dactylon affected with a white leaf disease in Sudan. J Phytopathol 122, 25–34.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Davis, R. E. & Dally, E. L. ( 2001; ). Revised subgroup classification of group 16SrV phytoplasmas and placement of flavescence dorée-associated phytoplasmas in two distinct subgroups. Plant Dis 85, 790–797.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. IRPCM ( 2000; ). Report of the working team for phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas, mesoplasmas and entomoplasmas. In Report of Consultations of the International Research Program on Comparative Mycoplasmology (IRPCM) of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology (IOM). Fukuoka, Japan: IOM.
  9. Kumar, S., Tamura, K., Jakobsen, I. B. & Nei, M. ( 2001; ). mega2: molecular evolutionary genetic analysis software. Bioinformatics 17, 1244–1245.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Lee, I.-M., Pastore, M., Vibio, M., Danielli, A., Attathom, S., Davis, R. E. & Bertaccini, A. ( 1997; ). Detection and characterization of a phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass (Poa annua) white leaf disease in southern Italy. Eur J Plant Pathol 103, 251–254.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lee, I.-M., Gundersen-Rindal, D. E., Davis, R. E. & Bartoszyk, I. M. ( 1998; ). Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 1153–1169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lee, I.-M., Davis, R. E. & Gundersen-Rindal, D. E. ( 2000; ). Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annu Rev Microbiol 54, 221–255.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lim, P.-O. & Sears, B. B. ( 1989; ). 16S rRNA sequence indicates that plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms are evolutionarily distinct from animal mycoplasmas. J Bacteriol 171, 5901–5906.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Marcone, C., Ragozzino, A. & Seemüller, E. ( 1997; ). Detection of Bermuda grass white leaf disease in Italy and genetic characterization of the associated phytoplasma by RFLP analysis. Plant Dis 81, 862–866.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Marcone, C., Neimark, H., Ragozzino, A., Lauer, U. & Seemüller, E. ( 1999; ). Chromosome sizes of phytoplasmas composing major phylogenetic groups and subgroups. Phytopathology 89, 805–810.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Marcone, C., Ragozzino, A. & Seemüller, E. ( 2001; ). Sugarcane white leaf and sugarcane grassy shoot diseases: biology and taxonomic characterization of the associated phytoplasmas. In Sugarcane Pathology, vol. 2, pp. 83–98. Edited by G. P. Rao, R. E. Ford, M. Tosi¢ & D. S. Teakle. Enfield, NH, USA: Science Publishers.
  17. Murray, R. G. E. & Schleifer, K. H. ( 1994; ). Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 174–176.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Murray, R. G. E. & Stackebrandt, E. ( 1995; ). Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 186–187.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Namba, S., Oyaizu, H., Kato, S., Iwanami, S. & Tsuchizaki, T. ( 1993; ). Phylogenetic diversity of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike orgnisms. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43, 461–467.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Padovan, A., De La Rue, S., Eichner, R., Davis, R., Schneider, B., Bernuetz, A. & Gibb, K. S. ( 1999; ). Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas in Australia: an update. Aust J Agric Res 50, 333–342.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sarindu, N. & Clark, M. F. ( 1993; ). Antibody production and identity of MLOs associated with sugar-cane whiteleaf disease and bermuda-grass whiteleaf disease from Thailand. Plant Pathol 42, 396–402.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Schneider, B., Seemüller, E., Smart, C. D. & Kirkpatrick, B. C. ( 1995; ). Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms or phytoplasmas. In Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology, vol. 1, pp. 369–380. Edited by S. Razin & J. G. Tully. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  23. Schneider, B., Marcone, C., Kampmann, M., Ragozzino, A., Lederer, W., Cousin M.-T. & Seemüller, E. ( 1997; ). Characterization and classification of phytoplasmas from wild and cultivated plants by RFLP and sequence analysis of ribosomal DNA. Eur J Plant Pathol 103, 675–686.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Sdoodee, R., Schneider, B., Padovan, A. & Gibb, K. S. ( 1999; ). Detection and genetic relatedness of phytoplasmas associated with plant diseases in Thailand. J Biochem Mol Biol Biophys 3, 133–140.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Seemüller, E., Schneider, B., Mäurer, R. & 8 other authors ( 1994; ). Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 440–446.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Seemüller, E., Marcone, C., Lauer, U., Ragozzino, A. & Göschl, M. ( 1998; ). Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. J Plant Pathol 80, 3–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Tran-Nguyen, L., Blanche, K. R., Egan, B. & Gibb, K. S. ( 2000; ). Diversity of phytoplasmas in northern Australian sugarcane and other grasses. Plant Pathol 49, 666–679.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Viswanathan, R. ( 1997; ). Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot disease of sugarcane by ELISA techniques. Z PflKrankh PflSchutz 104, 9–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Viswanathan, R. ( 2001; ). Serodiagnosis of phytoplasmas causing grassy shoot disease in sugarcane. In Sugarcane Pathology, vol. 2, pp. 209–220. Edited by G. P. Rao, R. E. Ford, M. Tosi¢ & D. S. Teakle. Enfield, NH, USA: Science Publishers.
  30. Wongkaew, P., Hanboonsong, Y., Sirithorn, P., Choosai, C., Boonkrong, S., Tinnangwattana, T., Kitchareonpanya, R. & Damak, S. ( 1997; ). Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by RFLP and sequencing. Theor Appl Genet 95, 660–663.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Zahoor, A., Bashir, M., Nakashima, K., Mitsueda, T. & Murata, N. ( 1995; ). Bermuda grass white leaf caused by phytoplasmas in Pakistan. Pak J Bot 27, 251–252.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02837-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02837-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error