The microflora isolated from food-packaging board is dominated by paenibacilli; a number of these micro-organisms have been characterized using a polyphasic approach. The highest 16S rRNA gene similarity was found between these isolates and ATCC 35681 (97·7 %). The main fatty acid of the paperboard isolates was C (34–45 %); straight-chain fatty acids made up 41–60 % of the total cellular fatty acids, thus distinguishing these strains from other species. The paperboard isolates produced cyclodextrins from starch. The spore surface had a characteristic ribbed ornamentation. Spores and vegetative cells frequently had pilus-like appendages. Based on phylogenetic data and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolates represent a novel species, sp. nov., with IS 1 (=DSM 14472=CCUG 45566) as the type strain.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Brosius, J., Palmer, M. L., Kennedy, P. J. & Noller, H. F. ( 1978; ). Complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75, 4801–4805.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Clesceri, L. S., Greenberg, A. E. & Eaton, A. D. ( 1998; ). Microbiological examination – heterotrophic plate count. In Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th edn, pp. 9-34–9-36. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
  3. Elo, S., Suominen, I., Kämpfer, P., Juhanoja, J., Salkinoja-Salonen, M. & Haahtela, K. ( 2001; ). Paenibacillus borealis sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from spruce forest humus in Finland. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 535–545.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Felsenstein, J. ( 1993; ). phylip (phylogenetic inference package) version 3.5.1. Department of Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
  5. Jukes, T. H. & Cantor, C. R. ( 1969; ). Evolution of protein molecules. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, vol. 3, pp. 21–132. Edited by H. N. Munro. New York: Academic Press.
  6. Kozuka, S. & Tochikubo, K. ( 1985; ). Properties and origin of filamentous appendages on spores of Bacillus cereus. Microbiol Immunol 29, 21–37.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Maidak, B. L., Cole, J. R., Parker, C. T., Jr & 11 other authors ( 1999; ). A new version of the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project). Nucleic Acids Res 27, 171–173.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Mizuki, E., Ohba, M., Ichimatsu, T., Hwang, S.-H., Higuchi, K., Saitoh, H. & Akao, T. ( 1998; ). Unique appendages associated with spores of Bacillus cereus isolates. J Basic Microbiol 38, 33–39.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Murphy, J. A. & Campbell, L. L. ( 1969; ). Surface features of Bacillus polymyxa spores as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. J Bacteriol 98, 737–743.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Pirttijärvi, T. S. M., Graeffe, T. H. & Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S. ( 1996; ). Bacterial contaminants in liquid packaging boards: assessment of potential for food spoilage. J Appl Bacteriol 81, 445–458.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Pirttijärvi, T. S. M., Wahlström, G., Rainey, F. A., Saris, P. E. J. & Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S. ( 2001; ). Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 26, 107–114.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Rainey, F. A., Ward-Rainey, N., Kroppenstedt, R. M. & Stackebrandt, E. ( 1996; ). The genus Nocardiopsis represents a phylogenetically coherent taxon and a distinct actinomycete lineage: proposal of Nocardiopsaceae fam. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 1088–1092.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Seldin, L., Van Elsas, J. D. & Penido, E. G. C. ( 1984; ). Bacillus azotofixans sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species from Brazilian soils and grass roots. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34, 451–456.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Smibert, R. M. & Krieg, N. R. ( 1994; ). Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 607–654. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  15. Suominen, I., Suihko, M.-L. & Salkinoja-Salonen, M. ( 1997; ). Microscopic study of migration of microbes in food-packaging paper and board. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 19, 104–113.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. TAPPI ( 1990; ). Bacteriological examination of paper and board. TAPPI standard T449 om-90. Atlanta: Technical Association of Pulp and Paper.
  17. van der Maarel, M. J. E. C., Veen, A. & Wijbenga, D. J. ( 2000; ). Paenibacillus granivorans sp. nov., a new Paenibacillus species which degrades native potato starch granules. Syst Appl Microbiol 23, 344–348.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 5, pp. 1369 - 1374

Whole-cell fatty acid compositions of the novel isolates and selected strains. [PDF](107 KB)


Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error