1887

Abstract

A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic and heterotrophic, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated LM22, was isolated from activated sludge of a sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of malachite green effluent. Cells of strain LM22 were slightly curved to straight rods (0.3–0.5×0.6–1.0 μm) and motile by a single polar flagellum. Strain LM22 was negative for oxidase and catalase activities and phototrophic growth. An internal membrane system and bacteriochlorophyll were absent. Growth occurred at 20–40 °C (optimum 30–35 °C) and pH 6.0–10.0 (optimum pH 7.0–7.5). Strain LM22 did not require NaCl for growth and tolerated up to 2.0 % NaCl (optimum 0.5 %). The major ubiquinone was Q-10. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total) were C 7 (32.9 %), C cyclo 8 (18.7 %), C (12.1 %) and C 2-OH (10.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that AU0476 was the closest relative (90.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The DNA G+C content was 65.6 mol%. On basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain LM22 was considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family , for which the name gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of is LM22 (=CGMCC 1.7660 =JCM 15798).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.020347-0
2010-12-01
2019-12-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/60/12/2780.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.020347-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alderman, D. J. ( 1985; ). Malachite green: a review. J Fish Dis 8, 289–298.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altschul, S. F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E. W. & Lipman, D. J. ( 1990; ). Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215, 403–410.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bruns, A., Rohde, M. & Berthe-Corti, L. ( 2001; ). Muricauda ruestringensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, appendaged bacterium from German North Sea intertidal sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1997–2006.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Choi, D. H., Hwang, C. Y. & Cho, B. C. ( 2009; ). Pelagibius litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium in the family Rhodospirillaceae isolated from coastal seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 818–823.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Coenye, T., Goris, J., Spilker, T., Vandamme, P. & LiPuma, J. J. ( 2002; ). Characterization of unusual bacteria isolated from respiratory secretions of cystic fibrosis patients and description of Inquilinus limosus gen. nov., sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 40, 2062–2069.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cowan, S. T. & Steel, K. J. ( 1965; ). Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. London. : Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dong, X.-Z. & Cai, M.-Y. ( 2001; ). Determinative Manual for Routine Bacteriology. Beijing. : Science Press (in Chinese ).
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dong, C., Lai, Q., Chen, L., Sun, F., Shao, Z. & Yu, Z. ( 2010; ). Oceanibaculum pacificum sp. nov., isolated from hydrothermal field sediment of the Southwest Pacific Ocean. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60, 219–222.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Eckert, B., Weber, O. B., Kirchhof, G., Halbritter, A., Stoffels, M. & Hartmann, A. ( 2001; ). Azospirillum doebereinerae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with the C4-grass Miscanthus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 17–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Favinger, J., Stadtwald, R. & Howard, G. ( 1989; ). Rhodospirillum centenum sp. nov., a thermotolerant cyst-forming anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 55, 291–296.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gerhardt, P., Murray, R. G. E., Wood, W. A. & Krieg, N. R. (editors) ( 1994; ). Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology. Washington, DC. : American Society for Microbiology.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Imhoff, J. F. & Caumette, P. ( 2004; ). Recommended standards for the description of new species of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1415–1421.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Imhoff, J. F., Petri, R. & Suling, J. ( 1998; ). Reclassification of species of the spiral-shaped phototrophic purple non-sulfur bacteria of the α-Proteobacteria: description of the new genera Phaeospirillum gen. nov., Rhodovibrio gen. nov., Rhodothalassium gen. nov. and Roseospira gen. nov. as well as transfer of Rhodospirillum fulvum to Phaeospirillum fulvum comb. nov., of Rhodospirilllum molischianum to Phaeospirillum molischianum comb. nov., of Rhodospirillum salinarum to Rhodovibrio salinarum comb. nov., of Rhodospirillum sodomense to Rhodovibrio sodomensis comb. nov., of Rhodospirillum salexigens to Rhodothalassium salexigens comb. nov. and of Rhodospirillum mediosalinum to Roseospira mediosalina comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 793–798.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kawasaki, H., Hoshino, Y., Kuraiski, Y. & Yamasato, K. ( 1992; ). Rhodocista centenaria gen. nov., sp. nov., a cyst-forming anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium and its phylogenetic position in the Proteobacteria alpha group. J Gen Appl Microbiol 38, 541–551.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Khammas, K. M., Ageron, E., Grimont, P. A. D. & Kaiser, P. ( 1989; ). Azospirillum irakense sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with rice roots and rhizosphere soil. Res Microbiol 140, 679–693.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Komagata, K. & Suzuki, K. ( 1987; ). Lipid and cell-wall analysis in bacterial systematics. Methods Microbiol 19, 161–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M. ( 2004; ). mega3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5, 150–163.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Labrenz, M., Tindall, B. J., Lawson, P. A., Collins, M. D., Schumann, P. & Hirsch, P. ( 2000; ). Staleya guttiformis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Sulfitobacter brevis sp. nov., α-3-Proteobacteria from hypersaline, heliothermal and meromictic antarctic Ekho Lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 303–313.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lai, Q., Yuan, J., Gu, L. & Shao, Z. ( 2009a; ). Marispirillum indicum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea environment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 1278–1281.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lai, Q., Yuan, J., Wu, C. & Shao, Z. ( 2009b; ). Oceanibaculum indicum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from deep seawater of the Indian Ocean. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 1733–1737.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lane, D. J. ( 1991; ). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175. Edited by Stackebrandt, E. & Goodfellow, M.. Chichester. : Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lin, S.-Y., Young, C. C., Hupfer, H., Siering, C., Arun, A. B., Chen, W.-M., Lai, W.-A., Shen, F.-T., Rekha, P. D. & Yassin, A. F. ( 2009; ). Azospirillum picis sp. nov., isolated from discarded tar. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 761–765.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. López-López, A., Pujalte, M. J., Benlloch, S., Mata-Roig, M., Rosselló-Mora, R., Garay, E. & Rodríguez-Valera, F. ( 2002; ). Thalassospira lucentensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new marine member of the α-Proteobacteria. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1277–1283.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mehnaz, S., Weselowski, B. & Lazarovits, G. ( 2007a; ). Azospirillum canadense sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from corn rhizosphere. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 620–624.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Mehnaz, S., Weselowski, B. & Lazarovits, G. ( 2007b; ). Azospirillum zeae sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of Zea mays. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2805–2809.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Peng, G., Wang, H., Zhang, G., Hou, W., Liu, Y., Wang, E. T. & Tan, Z. ( 2006; ). Azospirillum melinis sp. nov., a group of diazotrophs isolated from tropical molasses grass. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1263–1271.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pfennig, N. & Trüper, H. G. ( 1974; ). The phototrophic bacteria. In Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn, pp. 24–75. Edited by Buchanan, R. E. & Gibbons, N. E.. Baltimore. : Williams & Wilkins.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Reinhold, B., Hurek, T., Fendrik, I., Pot, B., Gillis, M., Kersters, K., Thielemans, S. & De Ley, J. ( 1987; ). Azospirillum halopraeferens sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing organism associated with roots of kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth). Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 43–51.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Schenk, S. U. & Werner, D. ( 1988; ). Fatty acid analysis of four Azospirillum species reveals three groups. Arch Microbiol 149, 580–582.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sizova, M. V., Panikov, N. S., Spiridonova, E. M., Slobodova, N. V. & Tourova, T. P. ( 2007; ). Novel facultative anaerobic acidotolerant Telmatospirillum siberiense gen. nov. sp. nov. isolated from mesotrophic fen. Syst Appl Microbiol 30, 213–220.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sly, L. I. & Stackebrandt, E. ( 1999; ). Description of Skermanella parooensis gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. parooensis following the transfer of Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. largomobilis to the genus Azospirillum. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 541–544.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sly, L. I., Blackall, L. L., Kraat, P. C., Tian-Shen, T. & Sangkhobol, V. ( 1986; ). The use of second derivative plots for the determination of mol% guanine plus cytosine of DNA by the thermal denaturation method. J Microbiol Methods 5, 139–156.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Srivastava, S., Sinha, R. & Roy, D. ( 2004; ). Toxicological effects of malachite green. Aquat Toxicol 66, 319–329.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Stanier, R. Y., Palleroni, N. J. & Doudoroff, M. ( 1966; ). The aerobic pseudomonads: a taxonomic study. J Gen Microbiol 43, 159–271.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Tarrand, J. J., Krieg, N. R. & Döbereiner, J. ( 1978; ). A taxonomic study of the Spirillum lipoferum group, with description of a new genus, Azospirillum gen. nov., and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov., and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov. Can J Microbiol 24, 967–980.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Urios, L., Michotey, V., Intertaglia, L., Lesongeur, F. & Lebaron, P. ( 2008; ). Nisaea denitrificans gen. nov., sp. nov. and Nisaea nitritireducens sp. nov., two novel members of the class Alphaproteobacteria from the Mediterranean Sea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 2336–2341.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Urios, L., Michotey, V., Intertaglia, L., Lesongeur, F. & Lebaron, P. ( 2010; ). Thalassobaculum salexigens sp. nov., a new member of the family Rhodospirillaceae from the NW Mediterranean Sea, and emended description of the genus Thalassobaculum. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60, 209–213.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Wang, Y.-X., Liu, J.-H., Zhang, X.-X., Chen, Y.-G., Wang, Z.-G., Chen, Y., Li, Q.-Y., Peng, Q. & Cui, X.-L. ( 2009; ). Fodinicurvata sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Fodinicurvata fenggangensis sp. nov., poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-producing bacteria in the family Rhodospirillaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 2575–2581.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Xie, C.-H. & Yokota, A. ( 2005; ). Azospirillum oryzae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the roots of the rice plant Oryza sativa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 1435–1438.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Yoon, J.-H., Kang, S.-J., Park, S. & Oh, T.-K. ( 2007; ). Caenispirillum bisanense gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sludge of a dye works. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1217–1221.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Young, C. C., Hupfer, H., Siering, C., Ho, M.-J., Arun, A. B., Lai, W.-A., Rekha, P. D., Shen, F.-T., Hung, M.-H. & other authors ( 2008; ). Azospirillum rugosum sp. nov., isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 959–963.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Zhang, D., Yang, H., Zhang, W., Huang, Z. & Liu, S.-J. ( 2003; ). Rhodocista pekingensis sp. nov., a cyst-forming phototrophic bacterium from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 1111–1114.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Zhang, G. I., Hwang, C. Y. & Cho, B. C. ( 2008; ). Thalassobaculum litoreum gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodospirillaceae isolated from coastal seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 479–485.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.020347-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.020347-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Transmission electron micrograph of a cell of strain LM22 grown on YP agar at 30 °C for 3 days. Bar, 1 µm.

IMAGE

Cellular fatty acid profiles of strain LM22 and phylogenetically related genera of the family . [PDF](60 KB)

PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error