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Abstract

Seven strains of purple nonsulfur bacteria isolated from the shallow-water steppe soda lakes of the cryoarid zone of Central Asia formed a genetically homogeneous group within the genus . The isolates were most closely related to from which they differed at the species level (99.5 % 16S rRNA gene identity and 42–44 % DNA–DNA hybridization level). According to genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strains were assigned to a new species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. Cells of all strains were ovoid to rod-shaped, 0.3–0.8 μm wide and 1–2.5 μm long, and motile by means of polar flagella. They contained internal photosynthetic membranes of the vesicular type and photosynthetic pigments (bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoids of the spheroidene series). All strains were obligate haloalkaliphiles, growing within a wide range of salinity (0.3–10 %) and pH (7.5–10), with growth optima at 1–5 % NaCl and pH 8.5. Photo- and chemoheterotrophic growth occurred with a number of organic compounds and biotin, thiamine and niacin as growth factors. No anaerobic respiration on nitrite, nitrate or fumarate and no fermentation was demonstrated. Bacteria grew photo- and chemolithoautotrophically with sulfide, sulfur and thiosulfate, oxidizing them to sulfate. Sulfide was oxidized via deposition of extracellular elemental sulfur. No growth with H as electron donor was demonstrated. The major fatty acid was 18 : 1 (81.0 %). The major quinone was Q-10. The DNA G+C content was 66.1 mol% ( ). The type strain, A-20s (=VKM B-2489 =DSM 21153), was isolated from soda lake Khilganta (Zabaikal'skii Krai, southern Siberia, Russia).

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2010-05-01
2020-01-24
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Phase-contrast micrographs of cells of strain A-20s growing: (a) anaerobically with propionate; (b) anaerobically with caseine hydrolysate; (c) aerobically with acetate. Bars, 10 µm.

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Electron micrograph of a negatively stained cell of strain A-20s showing a polar flagellum (a), and an electron micrograph of a cell ultrathin section, showing the vesicular nature of the photosynthetic membranes (b). Bars, 1 µm.

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Absorption spectra of phototrophically grown cells of strain A-20s (a) and of an acetone cell extract (b).

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Phase-contrast micrographs. (a) Strain A-20s growing photolitoautotrophically with sulfide as electron donor with a resulting extracellular deposition of elemental sulfur. (b) Rhodovulum strictum JCM 9220 growing photolitoautotrophically with sulfide as electron donor with a resulting extracellular deposition of elemental sulfur. (c) Strain A-20s growing photoorganoheterotrophically with acetate and selenite with a resulting extracellular deposition of elemental selenium. Bars, 10 µm.

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