Strains KFC-22 and SPC-20 are yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that were isolated from a soil sample near the Kafni glacier in the Himalayan mountain ranges in India, and from a spade core sediment sample from the Antarctic Ocean at Larsemann Hill, respectively. In both cases, the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diamino acid, anteiso-C, anteiso-C and iso-C were the predominant fatty acids and MK-11 was the major isoprenoid quinone in the cell membrane. On the basis of the above-mentioned characteristics, both strains can be assigned to the genus . The strains share 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.7 % and DNA relatedness of only 10 %, indicating that they represent different species. A analysis indicated that PON10 was the closest phylogenetic neighbour of strains SPC-20 and KFC-22, showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.3 and 97.7 %, respectively. However, at the whole-genome level, strains KFC-22 and SPC-20 shared 42 and 11 % DNA–DNA relatedness, respectively, with PON10. In addition, both strains exhibited several phenotypic differences with respect to PON10. Thus, on the basis of the differences that the two strains exhibited with respect to , both were identified as representing novel species of the genus , for which the names sp. nov. (type strain KFC-22 =NCCB 100216 =LMG 24362) and sp. nov. (type strain SPC-20 =NCCB 100227 =LMG 24541) are proposed.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Behrendt, U., Ulrich, A., Schumann, P., Naumann, D. & Suzuki, K.(2002). Diversity of grass-associated Microbacteriaceae isolated from the phyllosphere and litter layer after mulching the sward; a polyphasic characterization of Subtercola pratensis sp. nov., Curtobacterium herbarum sp. nov. and Plantibacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1441–1454.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Collins, M. D., Pirouz, T., Goodfellow, M. & Minnikin, D. E.(1977). Distribution of menaquinones in actinomycetes and corynebacteria. J Gen Microbiol 100, 221–230.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Dastager, S. G., Lee, J. C., Ju, Y. J., Park, D. J. & Kim, C. J.(2008).Leifsonia bigeumensis sp. nov., isolated from soil in Bigeum Island, Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 1935–1938.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Dastager, S. G., Lee, J. C., Ju, Y. J., Park, D. J. & Kim, C. J.(2009).Leifsonia kribbensis sp. nov., isolated from soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 18–21.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Davis, M. J., Gillaspie, A. G., Jr, Vidaver, A. K. & Harris, R. W.(1984).Clavibacter: a new genus containing some phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria, including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp cynodontis subsp. nov., pathogens that cause ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane and burmudagrass stunting disease. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34, 107–117.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Evtushenko, L. I., Dorofeeva, L. V., Subbotin, S. A., Cole, J. R. & Tiedje, J. M.(2000).Leifsonia poae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from nematode galls on Poa annua, and reclassification of ‘Corynebacterium aquaticum’ Leifson 1962 as Leifsonia aquatica (ex Leifson 1962) gen. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov. and Clavibacter xyli Davis et al. 1984 with two subspecies as Leifsonia xyli (Davis et al. 1984) gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 371–380.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Evtushenko, L. I., Dorofeeva, L. V., Dobrovolskaya, T. G., Streshinskaya, G. M., Subbotin, S. A. & Tiedje, J. M.(2001).Agreia bicolorata gen. nov., sp. nov., to accommodate actinobacteria isolated from narrow reed grass infected by the nematode Heteroanguina graminophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 2073–2079.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Evtushenko, L. I., Dorofeeva, L. V., Krausova, V. I., Gavrish, E. Y., Yashina, S. G. & Takeuchi, M.(2002).Okibacterium fritillariae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel genus of the family Microbacteriaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 987–993.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Groth, I., Schumann, P., Weiss, N., Martin, K. & Rainey, F. A.(1996).Agrococcus jenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new genus of actinomycetes with diaminobutyric acid in the cell wall. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 234–239.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Han, S. K., Nedashkovskaya, O. I., Mikhailov, V. V., Kim, S. B. & Bae, K. S.(2003).Salinibacterium amurskyense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel genus of the family Microbacteriaceae from the marine environment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 2061–2066.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Kimura, M.(1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16, 111–120.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Komagata, K. & Suzuki, K.(1987). Lipid and cell-wall analysis in bacterial systematics. Methods Microbiol 19, 161–207. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M.(2004).mega3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5, 150–163.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Lányí, B.(1987). Classical and rapid identification methods for medically important bacteria. Methods Microbiol 19, 1–67. [Google Scholar]
  15. Leifson, E.(1962). The bacterial flora of distilled and stored water. III. New species of the genera Corynebacterium, Flavobacterium, Spirillum and Pseudomonas. Int Bull Bacteriol Nomencl Taxon 12, 161–170. [Google Scholar]
  16. Männistö, M. K., Schumann, P., Rainey, F. A., Kämpfer, P., Tsitko, I., Tiirola, M. A. & Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S.(2000).Subtercola boreus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Subtercola frigoramans sp. nov., two new psychrophilic actinobacteria isolated from boreal groundwater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1731–1739. [Google Scholar]
  17. Marmur, J.(1961). A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from microorganisms. J Mol Biol 3, 208–218.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Qiu, F., Huang, Y., Sun, L., Zhang, X., Liu, Z. & Song, W.(2007).Leifsonia ginsengi sp. nov., isolated from ginseng root. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 405–408.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Reddy, G. S. N., Aggarwal, R. K., Matsumoto, G. I. & Shivaji, S.(2000).Arthrobacter flavus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from a pond in McMurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1553–1561.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Reddy, G. S. N., Prakash, J. S. S., Srinivas, R., Matsumoto, G. I. & Shivaji, S.(2003).Leifsonia rubra sp. nov. and Leifsonia aurea sp. nov., psychrophiles from a pond in Antarctica. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 977–984.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Reddy, G. S. N., Matsumoto, G. I., Schumann, P., Stackebrandt, E. & Shivaji, S.(2004). Psychrophilic pseudomonads from Antarctica: Pseudomonas antarctica sp. nov., Pseudomonas meridiana sp. nov. and Pseudomonas proteolytica sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 713–719.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Reddy, G. S. N., Nagy, M. & Garcia-Pichel, F.(2006).Belnapia moabensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium from biological soil crusts in the Colorado Plateau, USA. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 51–58.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Reddy, G. S. N., Potrafka, R. M. & Garcia-Pichel, F.(2007).Modestobacter versicolor sp. nov., an actinobacterium from biological soil crusts that produces melanins under oligotrophy, with emended descriptions of the genus Modestobacter and Modestobacter multiseptatus Mevs et al. 2000. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2014–2020.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Reddy, G. S. N., Prabagaran, S. R. & Shivaji, S.(2008).Leifsonia pindariensis sp. nov., isolated from the Pindari glacier of the Indian Himalayas, and emended description of the genus Leifsonia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 2229–2234.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Sheridan, P. P., Loveland-Curtze, J., Miteva, V. I. & Brenchley, J. E.(2003).Rhodoglobus vestalii gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic organism isolated from an Antarctic Dry Valley lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 985–994.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Shivaji, S., Chaturvedi, P., Reddy, G. S. N. & Suresh, K.(2005).Pedobacter himalayensis sp. nov., from the Hamta glacier located in the Himalayan mountain ranges of India. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 1083–1088.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Smibert, R. M. & Krieg, N. R.(1994). Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 607–654. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  28. Suzuki, K., Suzuki, M., Sasaki, J., Park, Y. H. & Komagata, K. K.(1999).Leifsonia gen. nov., a genus for 2,4-diaminobutyric acid-containing actinomycetes to accommodate “Corynebacterium aquaticum” Leifson 1962 and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis Davis et al. 1984. J Gen Appl Microbiol 45, 253–262.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Tamaoka, J.(1986). Analysis of bacterial menaquinone mixtures by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Methods Enzymol 123, 251–256. [Google Scholar]
  30. Tamaoka, J., Katayama-Fujimura, Y. & Kuraishi, H.(1983). Analysis of bacterial menaquinone mixture by high performance liquid chromatography. J Appl Bacteriol 54, 31–36.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 6, pp. 1348 - 1352

16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strains KFC-22 and SPC-20 with respect to closely related strains. [PDF](24 KB)


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error