1887

Abstract

Three xylanase-producing alkaliphilic strains, SU1, 36AC4 and 36AC6, were isolated from the guts of larvae of the Japanese horned beetle () The isolates stained Gram-positive and were aerobic, spore-forming, non-motile and rod-shaped and grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 9. They contained MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and iso-C, anteiso-C, anteiso-C and iso-C as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of the strains were 37.4–37.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the genus Although their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the alkaliphilic species and was 97 %, the novel isolates formed a distinct group in the phylogenetic trees and DNA–DNA relatedness values to the type strains of these species were less than 30 %. Results of physiological and biochemical tests, including salt preference, enabled these strains to be differentiated phenotypically from described species. Therefore, strains SU1, 36AC4 and 36AC6 represent a novel species for which the name sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is SU1 (=NBRC 102646 =KCTC 13244).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.005843-0
2010-01-01
2019-12-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/60/1/61.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.005843-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aino, K., Hirota, K., Matsuno, T., Morita, N., Nodasaka, Y., Fujiwara, T., Matsuyama, H., Yoshimune, K. & Yumoto, I. ( 2008; ). Bacillus polygoni sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, non-motile obligate alkaliphile isolated from indigo balls. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 120–124.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Borchert, M. S., Nielsen, P., Graeber, I., Kaesler, I., Szewzyk, U., Pape, T., Antranikian, G. & Schäfer, T. ( 2007; ). Bacillus plakortidis sp. nov. and Bacillus murimartini sp. nov., novel alkalitolerant members of rRNA group 6. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2888–2893.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Borsodi, A. K., Márialigeti, K., Szabó, G., Palatinszky, M., Pollák, B., Kéki, Z., Kovács, A. L., Schumann, P. & Tóth, E. M. ( 2008; ). Bacillus aurantiacus sp. nov., an alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Hungarian soda lakes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 845–851.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ezaki, T., Hashimoto, Y., Takeuchi, N., Yamamoto, H., Liu, S. L., Miura, H., Matsui, K. & Yabuuchi, E. ( 1988; ). Simple genetic method to identify viridans group streptococci by colorimetric dot hybridization and fluorometric hybridization in microdilution wells. J Clin Microbiol 26, 1708–1713.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ezaki, T., Hashimoto, Y. & Yabuuchi, E. ( 1989; ). Fluorometric deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization in microdilution wells as an alternative to membrane filter hybridization in which radioisotopes are used to determine genetic relatedness among bacterial strains. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 224–229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Felsenstein, J. ( 1981; ). Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17, 368–376.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Felsenstein, J. ( 1985; ). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Felsenstein, J. ( 2005; ). phylip (phylogeny inference package) version 3.65. Distributed by the author. Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
  9. Ghosh, A., Bhardwaj, M., Satyanarayana, T., Khurana, M., Mayilraj, S. & Jain, R. K. ( 2007; ). Bacillus lehensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 238–242.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gordon, R. E., Haynes, W. C. & Pang, C. H.-N. ( 1973; ). The Genus Bacillus. US Department of Agriculture Handbook no. 427. Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service.
  11. Horikoshi, K. ( 1991; ). Isolation and classification of alkalophilic microorganisms. In Microorganisms in Alkaline Environments, pp. 15–24. Edited by K. Horikoshi. Tokyo: Kodansha.
  12. Horikoshi, K. ( 1996; ). Alkaliphiles – from an industrial point of view. FEMS Microbiol Rev 18, 259–270.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hugh, R. & Leifson, E. ( 1953; ). The taxonomic significance of fermentative versus oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates by various Gram-negative bacteria. J Bacteriol 66, 24–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jukes, T. H. & Cantor, C. R. ( 1969; ). Evolution of protein molecules. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, vol. 3, pp. 21–132. Edited by H. N. Munro. New York: Academic Press.
  15. Kitada, M. & Horikoshi, K. ( 1987; ). Bioenergetic properties of alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain C-59 on an alkaline medium containing K2CO3. J Bacteriol 169, 5761–5765.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kluge, A. G. & Farris, J. S. ( 1969; ). Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Syst Zool 18, 1–32.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Komagata, K. & Suzuki, K. ( 1987; ). Lipid and cell-wall analysis in bacterial systematics. Methods Microbiol 19, 161–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kono, H. ( 1931; ). Die Trypoxylus-Arten aus Japan und Formosa (Col. Scarabaeidae). Insecta Matsumurana 5, 159–160 (in German).
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kurosawa, Y. ( 1985; ). Siiphidae. In The Coleoptera of Japan in Color, vol. 2. Edited by S. Ueno, Y. Kurosawa & M. Sato. Osaka: Hoikusha.
  20. Lee, J.-C., Lee, G. S., Park, D.-J. & Kim, C.-J. ( 2008; ). Bacillus alkalitelluris sp. nov., an alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from sandy soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 2629–2634.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Li, Z., Kawamura, Y., Shida, O., Yamagata, S., Deguchi, T. & Ezaki, T. ( 2002; ). Bacillus okuhidensis sp. nov., isolated from the Okuhida spa area of Japan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1205–1209.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nielsen, P., Fritze, D. & Priest, F. G. ( 1995; ). Phenetic diversity of alkaliphilic Bacillus strains: proposal for nine new species. Microbiology 141, 1745–1761.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nogi, Y., Takami, H. & Horikoshi, K. ( 2005; ). Characterization of alkaliphilic Bacillus strains used in industry: proposal of five novel species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 2309–2315.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nowlan, B., Dodia, M. S., Singh, S. P. & Patel, B. K. C. ( 2006; ). Bacillus okhensis sp. nov., a halotolerant and alkalitolerant bacterium from an Indian saltpan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1073–1077.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ohkuma, M., Shimizu, H., Thongaram, T., Kosono, S., Moriya, K., Trakulnaleamsai, S., Noparatnaraporn, N. & Kudo, T. ( 2003; ). An alkaliphilic and xylanolytic Paenibacillus species isolated from the gut of a soil-feeding termite. Microbes Environ 18, 145–151.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Olivera, N., Siñeriz, F. & Breccia, J. D. ( 2005; ). Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov., a novel alkalitolerant bacterium from the rhizosphere of Atriplex lampa in Patagonia, Argentina. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 443–447.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ryu, E. ( 1938; ). On the Gram-differentiation of bacteria by the simplest method. J Jpn Soc Vet Sci 17, 31
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Smibert, R. M. & Krieg, N. R. ( 1994; ). Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 607–654. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  30. Sorokin, D. Y., van Pelt, S. & Tourova, T. P. ( 2008a; ). Utilization of aliphatic nitriles under haloalkaline conditions by Bacillus alkalinitrilicus sp. nov. isolated from soda solonchak soil. FEMS Microbiol Lett 288, 235–240.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sorokin, I. D., Kravchenko, I. K., Tourova, T. P., Kolganova, T. V., Boulygina, E. S. & Sorokin, D. Y. ( 2008b; ). Bacillus alkalidiazotrophicus sp. nov., a diazotrophic, low salt-tolerant alkaliphile isolated from Mongolian soda soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 2459–2464.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sorokin, D. Y., van Pelt, S. & Tourova, T. P. ( 2009; ). Bacillus alkalinitrilicus sp. nov. In List of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively, but not Validly, Published, Validation List no. 125. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 1–2.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Stackebrandt, E. & Goebel, B. M. ( 1994; ). Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 846–849.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Takeishi, H., Anzai, H., Urai, M., Aizawa, T., Wada, N., Iwabuchi, N., Sunairi, M. & Nakajima, M. ( 2006; ). Xylanolytic and alkaliphilic Dietzia sp. isolated from larvae of the Japanese horned beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. Actinomycetologica 20, 49–54.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Tamaoka, J. & Komagata, K. ( 1984; ). Determination of DNA base composition by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. FEMS Microbiol Lett 25, 125–128.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tamura, T. & Hatano, K. ( 2001; ). Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Actinoplanes and transfer of Actinoplanes minutisporangius Ruan et al. 1986 and ‘Actinoplanes aurantiacus’ to Cryptosporangium minutisporangium comb. nov. and Cryptosporangium aurantiacum sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 2119–2125.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tamura, T., Nakagaito, Y., Nishii, T., Hasegawa, T., Stackebrandt, E. & Yokota, A. ( 1994; ). A new genus of the order Actinomycetales, Couchioplanes gen. nov., with descriptions of Couchioplanes caeruleus (Horan and Brodsky 1986) comb. nov. and Couchioplanes caeruleus subsp. azureus subsp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 193–203.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tamura, T., Hayakawa, M. & Hatano, K. ( 1999; ). Sporichthya brevicatena sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1779–1784.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. ( 2007; ). mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24, 1596–1599.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Thongaram, T., Kosono, S., Ohkuma, M., Hongoh, Y., Kitada, M., Yoshinaka, T., Trakulnaleamsai, S., Noparatnaraporn, N. & Kudo, T. ( 2003; ). Gut of higher termites as a niche for alkaliphiles as shown by culture-based and culture-independent studies. Microbes Environ 18, 152–159.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Vargas, V. A., Delgado, O. D., Hatti-Kaul, R. & Mattiasson, B. ( 2005; ). Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant bacterium isolated from a Kenyan soda lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 899–902.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Wada, N., Takeishi, H., Urai, M., Iwabuchi, N., Sunairi, M., Nakajima, N. & Anzai, H. ( 2004; ). Microbial flora in digestive tract of Tripoxylus dichotoma (L.) larvae. In 10th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology, Cancun, Mexico, abstract 266. Heteren: International Society for Microbial Ecology.
  44. Wang, Q. F., Li, W., Liu, Y. L., Cao, H. H., Li, Z. & Guo, G. Q. ( 2007; ). Bacillus qingdaonensis sp. nov., a moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a crude sea-salt sample collected near Qingdao in eastern China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1143–1147.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Wayne, L. G., Brenner, D. J., Colwell, R. R., Grimont, P. A. D., Kandler, O., Krichevsky, M. I., Moore, L. H., Moore, W. E. C., Murray, R. G. E. & other authors ( 1987; ). International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 463–464.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Yumoto, I., Yamazaki, K., Sawabe, T., Nakano, K., Kawasaki, K., Ezura, Y. & Shinano, H. ( 1998; ). Bacillus horti sp. nov., a new Gram-negative alkaliphilic bacillus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 565–571.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Yumoto, I., Yamaga, S., Sogabe, Y., Nodasaka, Y., Matsuyama, H., Nakajima, K. & Suemori, A. ( 2003; ). Bacillus krulwichiae sp. nov., a halotolerant obligate alkaliphile that utilizes benzoate and m-hydroxybenzoate. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 1531–1536.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Yumoto, I., Hirota, K., Goto, T., Nodasaka, Y. & Nakajima, K. ( 2005; ). Bacillus oshimensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, non-motile alkaliphile. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 907–911.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.005843-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.005843-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Larva of Japanese horned beetle ( ). Bar, 1 cm.

IMAGE

Effect of sodium and potassium salts on growth of strains SU1 , 36AC4 and 36AC6, CIP 105304 and NBRC 15653 . [PDF](40 KB)

PDF

Fatty acid compositions of strains of sp. nov. and closely related type strains. [PDF](44 KB)

PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error