A Gram-positive-staining, spherical-shaped and faintly pink-pigmented bacterial strain, X-82, was isolated from soil samples collected from a desert in Xinjiang, China. The organism was found to be resistant to UV radiation but sensitive to gamma radiation and desiccation. The optimum growth pH, NaCl concentration and temperature were pH 7.0, 0–1 % NaCl and 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain X-82 is member of a novel species belonging to the genus , with KR-140 as its closest relative (93.5 % similarity). The DNA G+C content (60 mol%), quinone type (MK-8), major cellular fatty acids (16 : 17, 16 : 0 and 17 : 1 iso 9), the presence of peptidoglycan with -ornithine and the dominant polar lipid (phosphoglycolipids and glycolipids) support the affiliation of strain X-82 with the genus . A novel species is proposed, for which the name sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain X-82 (=CCTCC AB 207226 =NRRL B-51287).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Anderson, R. & Hansen, K.(1985). Structure of a novel phosphoglycolipid from Deinococcus radiodurans. J Biol Chem 260, 12219–12223. [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, A. W., Nordan, H. C., Cain, R. F., Parrish, G. & Duggan, D.(1956). Studies on a radio-resistant micrococcus. I. The isolation, morphology, cultural characteristics and resistance to gamma radiation. Food Technol 10, 575–577. [Google Scholar]
  3. Asker, D., Awad, T. S., Beppu, T. & Ueda, K.(2009).Deinococcus aquiradiocola sp. nov., isolated from a radioactive site in Japan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 144–149.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Buck, J. D.(1982). Nonstaining (KOH) method for determination of gram reactions of marine bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 44, 992–993. [Google Scholar]
  5. Callegan, R. P., Nobre, M. F., McTernan, P. M., Battista, J. R., Navarro-Gonzalez, R., McKay, C. P., da Costa, M. S. & Rainey, F. A.(2008). Description of four novel psychrophilic, ionizing radiation-sensitive Deinococcus species from alpine environments. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 1252–1258.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Chun, J., Lee, J.-H., Jung, Y., Kim, M., Kim, S., Kim, B. K. & Lim, Y.-W.(2007). EzTaxon: a web-based tool for the identification of prokaryotes based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2259–2261.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Counsell, T. J. & Murray, R. G. E.(1986). Polar lipid profiles of the genus Deinococcus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36, 202–206.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Daly, M. J., Gaidamakova, E. K., Matrosova, V. Y., Vasilenko, A., Zhai, M., Venkateswaran, A., Hess, M., Omelchenko, M. V., Kostandarithes, H. M. & other authors(2004). Accumulation of Mn(II) in Deinococcus radiodurans facilitates gamma-radiation resistance. Science 306, 1025–1028.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Davis, N. S., Silverman, G. J. & Masurovsky, E. B.(1963). Radiation-resistant, pigmented coccus isolated from haddock tissue. J Bacteriol 86, 294–298. [Google Scholar]
  10. Embley, T. M., O'Donnell, A. G., Watt, R. & Rostron, J.(1987). Lipid and cell wall amino acid composition in the classification of members of the genus Deinococcus. Syst Appl Microbiol 10, 20–27.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Ferreira, A. C., Nobre, F. M., Rainey, F. A., Silva, M. T., Wait, R., Burghardt, J., Chung, A. P. & da Costa, M. S.(1997).Deinococcus geothermalis sp. nov. and Deinococcus murrayi sp. nov., two extremely radiation-resistant and slightly thermophilic species from hot springs. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 939–947.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Hirsch, P., Gallikowski, C. A., Siebert, J., Peissl, K., Kroppenstedt, R., Schumann, P., Stackebrandt, E. & Anderson, R.(2004).Deinococcus frigens sp. nov., Deinococcus saxicola sp. nov., and Deinococcus marmoris sp. nov., low temperature and drought-tolerating, UV-resistant bacteria from continental Antarctica. Syst Appl Microbiol 27, 636–645.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Im, W.-T., Jung, H.-M., Ten, L. N., Kim, M. K., Bora, M., Goodfellow, M., Lim, S., Jung, J. & Lee, S.-T.(2008).Deinococcus aquaticus sp. nov. isolated from freshwater and Deinococcus caeni sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge in South Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 2348–2353.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Ito, H., Watanabe, H., Takehisa, N. & Iizuka, H.(1983). Isolation and identification of radiation-resistant cocci belonging to the genus Deinococcus from sewage sludges and animal feeds. Agric Biol Chem 47, 1239–1247.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Kämpfer, P., Lodders, N., Huber, B., Falsen, E. & Busse, H.-J.(2008).Deinococcus aquatilis sp. nov., isolated from water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 2803–2806.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M.(2004).mega3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5, 150–163.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Lai, W. A., Kämpfer, P., Arun, A. B., Shen, F. T., Huber, B., Rekha, P. D. & Young, C. C.(2006).Deinococcus ficus sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Ficus religiosa L. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 787–791.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Lewis, N. F.(1973). Radio-resistant Micrococcus radiophilus sp. nov. isolated from irradiated Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus). Curr Sci 42, 504 [Google Scholar]
  19. Lin, Y.-C., Uemori, K., de Briel, D. A., Arunpairojana, V. & Yokota, A.(2004).Zimmermannella helvola gen. nov., sp. nov., Zimmermannella alba sp. nov., Zimmermannella bifida sp. nov., Zimmermannella faecalis sp. nov. and Leucobacter albus sp. nov., novel members of the family Microbacteriaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1669–1676.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Masters, C. I., Murray, R. G. E., Moseley, B. E. B. & Minton, K. W.(1991). DNA polymorphisms in new isolates of ‘Deinococcus radiopugnans’. J Gen Microbiol 137, 1459–1469.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Mattimore, V. & Battista, J. R.(1996). Radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans: functions necessary to survive ionizing radiation are also necessary to survive prolonged desiccation. J Bacteriol 178, 633–637. [Google Scholar]
  22. Mesbah, M., Premachandran, U. & Whitman, W. B.(1989). Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 159–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Minton, K. W.(1994). DNA repair in the extremely radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Mol Microbiol 13, 9–15.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Oyaizu, H., Stackebrandt, E., Schleifer, K. H., Ludwig, W., Pohla, H., Ito, H., Hirata, A., Oyaizu, Y. & Komagata, K.(1987). A radiation-resistant rod-shaped bacterium, Deinobacter grandis gen. nov., sp. nov., with peptidoglycan containing ornithine. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 62–67.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Rainey, F. A., Ray, K., Ferreira, M., Gatz, B. Z., Nobre, M. F., Bagaley, D., Rash, B. A., Park, M. J., Earl, A. M. & other authors(2005). Extensive diversity of ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria recovered from Sonoran Desert soil and description of nine new species of the genus Deinococcus obtained from a single soil sample. Appl Environ Microbiol 71, 5225–5235.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Schleifer, K. H. & Kandler, O.(1972). Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriol Rev 36, 407–477. [Google Scholar]
  27. Smibert, R. M. & Krieg, N. R.(1994). Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 607–654. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  28. Suresh, K., Reddy, G. S. N., Sengupta, S. & Shivaji, S.(2004).Deinococcus indicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium from an aquifer in West Bengal, India. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 457–461.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Thompson, B. G., Anderson, R. & Murray, R. G.(1980). Unusual polar lipids of Micrococcus radiodurans strain Sark. Can J Microbiol 26, 1408–1411.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Tindall, B. J.(1990). Lipid composition of Halobacterium lacusprofundi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 66, 199–202.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Weeks, O. B.(1955).Flavobacterium aquatile (Frankland and Frankland) Bergey et al., type species of the genus Flavobacterium. J Bacteriol 69, 649–658. [Google Scholar]
  32. Weon, H. Y., Kim, B. Y., Schumann, P., Son, J. A., Jang, J., Go, S. J. & Kwon, S. W.(2007).Deinococcus cellulosilyticus sp. nov., isolated from air. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1685–1688.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  33. Xie, C. H. & Yokota, A.(2003). Phylogenetic analysis of Lampropedia hyalina based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. J Gen Appl Microbiol 49, 345–349.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


Polar lipid profiles of strain X-82 and DSM 20539 (=R1 ) following two-dimensional TLC separation. APL, Unknown aminophospholipid; GL , unknown glycolipid; PGL , unknown phosphoglycolipid; PL , unknown polar lipid; PIG, pigment.


[PDF file of Supplementary Figs S1 and S3](75 KB)


Fatty acid composition of strain X-82 and related members of the genus . [PDF](61 KB)


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error