A novel, obligately anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacterium, designated strain PPP2, was isolated from guano of the Magellanic penguin () in Chilean Patagonia. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, straight rods (0.7–0.8×3.0–5.0 μm) that were motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Growth was observed at pH 6.7−9.7 (optimum pH 8.3) and 2–37 °C (optimum 29 °C). Growth was observed between 0 and 4 % (w/v) NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5 % (w/v). Strain PPP2 was a catalase-negative chemo-organoheterotroph that was capable of fermentative metabolism. Peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids, oxalate, starch, chitin and yeast extract were utilized as substrates. The major metabolic products were acetate, butyrate and ethanol. Strain PPP2 was resistant to ampicillin, but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. The DNA G+C content of strain PPP2 was 39.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain PPP2 was related most closely to SR (∼90 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characteristics, strain PPP2 is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of is PPP2 (=ATCC BAA-755 =JCM 12175 =CIP 108034).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Altschul, S. F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E. W. & Lipman, D. J.(1990). Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215, 403–410.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Andreesen, J. R.(1992). The genus Eubacterium. In The Prokaryotes, 2nd edn, vol. 2, pp. 1914–1924. Edited by A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K. H. Schleifer. New York: Springer.
  3. Bae, J.-W., Park, J. R., Chang, Y.-H., Rhee, S.-K., Kim, B.-C. & Park, Y.-H.(2004).Clostridium hastiforme is a later synonym of Tissierella praeacuta. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 947–949.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Cao, X., Liu, X. & Dong, X.(2003).Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic, crotonate-dismutating bacterium isolated from a methanogenic environment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 971–975.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Chen, S., Song, L. & Dong, X.(2006).Sporacetigenium mesophilum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an anaerobic digester treating municipal solid waste and sewage. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 721–725.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Collins, M. D. & Shah, H. N.(1986). Reclassification of Bacteroides praecutus Tissier (Holdeman and Moore) in a new genus, Tissierella, as Tissierella praeacuta comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36, 461–463.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Collins, M. D., Lawson, P. A., Willems, A., Cordoba, J. J., Fernandez-Garayzabal, J., Garcia, J.-L., Cal, J., Hippe, H. & Farrow, J. A. E.(1994). The phylogeny of the genus Clostridium: proposal of five new genera and eleven new species combinations. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 812–826.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Farrow, J. A. E., Lawson, P. A., Hippe, H., Gauglitz, U. & Collins, M. D.(1995). Phylogenetic evidence that the Gram-negative nonsporulating bacterium Tissierella (Bacteroides) praeacuta is a member of the Clostridium subphylum of the Gram-positive bacteria and description of Tissierella creatinini sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 436–440.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Gerhardt, P., Murray, R. G. E., Costilow, R. N., Nester, E. W., Wood, W. A., Krieg, N. R. & Phillips, G. B. (editors)(1994).Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  10. Hippe, H., Andreesen, J. R. & Gottschalk, G.(1992). The genus Clostridium – nonmedical. In The Prokaryotes, 2nd edn, vol. 2, pp. 1800–1866. Edited by A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K. H. Schleifer. New York: Springer.
  11. Hoover, R. B., Pikuta, E. V., Marsic, D. & Ng, J.(2002). Anaerobic psychrophiles from Alaska, Antarctica, and Patagonia: implications to possible life on Mars and Europa. In Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology IV (SPIE Proceedings Series, vol. 4495), pp. 313–324. Edited by R. B. Hoover, G. V. Levin, R. R. Paepe, A. Yu. Rozanov. Bellingham, WA: SPIE.
  12. Hoover, R. B., Pikuta, E. V., Bej, A. K., Marsic, D., Whitman, W. B., Tang, J. & Krader, P.(2003).Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic spirochete isolated from soda Mono Lake in California. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 815–821.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Jukes, T. H. & Cantor, C. R.(1969). Evolution of protein molecules. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, vol. 3, pp. 21–132. Edited by H. N. Munro. New York: Academic Press.
  14. Kevbrin, V. V., Zhilina, T. N., Rainey, F. A. & Zavarzin, G. A.(1998).Tindallia magadii gen. nov., sp. nov.: an alkaliphilic anaerobic ammonifier from soda lake deposits. Curr Microbiol 37, 94–100.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Klouche, N., Fardeau, M. L., Lascourreges, J. F., Cayol, J. L., Hacene, H., Thomas, P. & Magot, M.(2007).Geosporobacter subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium isolated from a deep subsurface aquifer. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1757–1761.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Love, D. N., Jones, R. F. & Bailey, M.(1979).Clostridium villosum sp. nov. from subcutaneous abscesses in cats. Int J Syst Bacteriol 29, 241–244.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Mesbah, M., Premachandran, U. & Whitman, W.(1989). Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 159–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Pikuta, E. V. & Hoover, R. B.(2003). Psychrophiles and astrobiology: microbial life of frozen worlds. In Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology VI (SPIE Proceedings Series, vol. 4939), pp. 103–116. Edited by R. B. Hoover, A. Yu. Rozanov & J. H. Lipps. Bellingham, WA: SPIE.
  19. Pikuta, E. V. & Hoover, R. B.(2004). Growth of the facultative anaerobes from Antarctica, Alaska, and Patagonia at low temperatures. In Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology VIII (SPIE Proceedings Series, vol. 5555), pp. 160–191. Edited by R. B. Hoover, G. V. Levin & A. Yu. Rozanov. Bellingham, WA: SPIE.
  20. Pikuta, E. V., Hoover, R. B., Marsic, D., Bej, A. K., Tang, J., Cleland, D. & Krader, P.(2003). Psychrotolerant anaerobic bacteria from Patagonia and the permafrost tunnel of Fox, Alaska. In Abstracts of the 103rd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, p. 351, 18–22 May 2003, Washington, DC.
  21. Pikuta, E. V., Hoover, R. B., Bej, A. K., Marsic, D., Whitman, W. B., Krader, P. E. & Tang, J.(2006).Trichococcus patagoniensis sp. nov., a facultative anaerobe that grows at −5 °C, isolated from penguin guano in Chilean Patagonia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2055–2062.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Ravot, G., Magot, M., Fardeau, M.-L., Patel, B. K. C., Thomas, P., Garcia, J.-L. & Ollivier, B.(1999).Fusibacter paucivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, thiosulfate-reducing bacterium from oil-producing well. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1141–1147.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  24. Stams, A. J. M. & Hansen, T. A.(1984). Fermentation of glutamate and other compounds by Acidaminobacter hydrogenoformans gen. nov. sp. nov., an obligate anaerobe isolated from black mud. Studies with pure cultures and mixed cultures with sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria. Arch Microbiol 137, 329–337.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Takai, K., Moser, D. P., Onstott, T. C., Spoelstra, N., Pfiffner, S. M., Dohnalkova, A. & Fredrickson, J. K.(2001).Alkaliphilus transvaalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a deep South African gold mine. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1245–1256. [Google Scholar]
  26. Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. & Kumar, S.(2007).mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24, 1596–1599.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Wolin, E. A., Wolin, M. J. & Wolfe, R. S.(1963). Formation of methane by bacterial extracts. J Biol Chem 238, 2882–2886. [Google Scholar]
  29. Zhilina, T. N., Detkova, E. N., Rainey, F. A., Osipov, G. A., Lysenko, A. M., Kostrikina, N. A. & Zavarzin, G. A.(1998).Natronoincola histidinovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic acetogenic anaerobe. Curr Microbiol 37, 177–185.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 9, pp. 2302 - 2307

Temperature range and optimum for growth of strain PPP2 on peptone-containing medium with pH 7.7 and 0.5 % NaCl.

Fatty acid composition of cells of strain PPP2 .

[PDF file of Supplementary Figure and Table](255 KB)


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error