is an important early colonizer in the oral biofilm and consists of three genospecies (1, 2 and WVA 963) which cannot be readily differentiated using conventional phenotypic testing or on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We have investigated a representative collection of type and reference strains and clinical and oral isolates (=115) and determined the partial gene sequences of six housekeeping genes (, , , , and ). These sequences identified the three genospecies and differentiated them from isolated from rodents. The partial sequences of and gave best separation of the three genospecies. genospecies 1 and 2 formed two distinct clusters, well separated from both genospecies WVA 963 and . Analysis of the same genes in other oral species (, , , and ) indicated that, when sequence data were obtained, these species each exhibited <90 % similarity with the genospecies. Based on these data, we propose the name sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 27044 =CCUG 34288) for genospecies 2 and sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 49338 =CCUG 34287) for genospecies WVA 963. genospecies 1 should remain as , with the type strain ATCC 12104 =NCTC 10301 =CCUG 2238.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Aas, J. A., Paster, B. J., Stokes, L. N., Olsen, I. & Dewhirst, F. E.(2005). Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J Clin Microbiol 43, 5721–5732.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Beighton, D., Hardie, J. M. & Whiley, R. A.(1991). A scheme for the identification of viridans streptococci. J Med Microbiol 35, 367–372.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Brailsford, S. R., Tregaskis, R. B., Leftwich, H. S. & Beighton, D.(1999). The predominant Actinomyces spp. isolated from infected dentin of active root caries lesions. J Dent Res 78, 1525–1534.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Christensen, H., Kuhnert, P., Olsen, J. E. & Bisgaard, M.(2004). Comparative phylogenies of the housekeeping genes atpD, infB and rpoB and the 16S rRNA gene within the Pasteurellaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1601–1609.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Ellen, R. P.(1976). Establishment and distribution of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii in the human oral cavity. Infect Immun 14, 1119–1124. [Google Scholar]
  6. Fillery, E. D., Bowden, G. H. & Hardie, J. M.(1978). A comparison of strains of bacteria designated Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii. Caries Res 12, 299–312.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Gerencser, M. A. & Slack, J. M.(1976). Serological identification of Actinomyces using fluorescent antibody techniques. J Dent Res 55, A184–A191.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Hallberg, K., Hammarström, K. J., Falsen, E., Dahlén, G., Gibbons, R. J., Hay, D. I. & Strömberg, N.(1998).Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 express different binding specificities to N-acetyl-beta-d-galactosamine, whereas Actinomyces odontolyticus expresses a different binding specificity in colonizing the human mouth. Oral Microbiol Immunol 13, 327–336.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Hoshino, T., Fujiwara, T. & Kilian, M.(2005). Use of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses to identify nonhemolytic streptococci isolated from bacteremic patients. J Clin Microbiol 43, 6073–6085.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Johnson, J. L., Moore, L. V., Kaneko, B. & Moore, W. E.(1990).Actinomyces georgiae sp. nov., Actinomyces gerencseriae sp. nov., designation of two genospecies of Actinomyces naeslundii, and inclusion of A. naeslundii serotypes II and III and Actinomyces viscosus serotype II in A. naeslundii genospecies 2. Int J Syst Bacteriol 40, 273–286.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Jumas-Bilak, E., Carlier, J.-P., Jean-Pierre, H., Teyssier, C., Gay, B., Campos, J. & Marchandin, H.(2004).Veillonella montpellierensis sp. nov., a novel, anaerobic, Gram-negative coccus isolated from human clinical samples. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1311–1316.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M.(2004).mega3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5, 150–163.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Lane, D. J.(1991). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175. Edited by E. Stackebrandt & M. Goodfellow. Chichester: Wiley.
  14. Li, J., Helmerhorst, E. J., Leone, C. W., Troxler, R. F., Yaskell, T., Haffajee, A. D., Socransky, S. S. & Oppenheim, F. G.(2004). Identification of early microbial colonizers in human dental biofilm. J Appl Microbiol 97, 1311–1318.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Marsh, P. D. & Martin, M. V.(1999).Oral Microbiology, 4th edn. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  16. Naser, S. M., Dawyndt, P., Hoste, B., Gevers, D., Vandemeulebroecke, K., Cleenwerck, I., Vancanneyt, M. & Swings, J.(2007). Identification of lactobacilli by pheS and rpoA gene sequence analyses. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2777–2789.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Putnins, E. E. & Bowden, G. H.(1993). Antigenic relationships among oral Actinomyces isolates, Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2, Actinomyces howellii, Actinomyces denticolens, and Actinomyces slackii. J Dent Res 72, 1374–1385.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  19. Tang, G., Yip, H. K., Luo, G., Cheung, B. P., Shen, S. & Samaranayake, L. P.(2003). Development of novel oligonucleotide probes for seven Actinomyces species and their utility in supragingival plaque analysis. Oral Dis 9, 203–209.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Thompson, L. & Lovestedt, S. A.(1951). An Actinomyces-like organism obtained from the human mouth. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 26, 169–175. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 3, pp. 509 - 516

16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between groups

Strains used and accession numbers for partial 16S rRNA gene sequences

Details of oral and non-oral isolates and reference and type strains used in this study and GenBank accession numbers of partial sequences

Phylogenetic relationships between genospecies 1 ( ), genospecies 2 ( sp. nov.) and serotype WVA 963 ( sp. nov.), generated by neighbour-joining analysis of partial gene sequences of , , and

[PDF file of Supplementary Tables and Figure](92 KB)

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error