1887

Abstract

The oxytrichid species ( Shi , 2002 ) Gupta , 2003 , isolated from a tributary of the Yangtze River in the Mudong district of Chongqing, southern China, was reinvestigated with emphasis on its morphology, morphogenesis and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA-based phylogeny. Compared with three previously described populations, the Mudong population of is characterized by its large body size, 170–295 × 65–110 μm , and by having a variable number of right marginal rows, either two or three. Likewise, the number of right marginal rows anlagen (RMA) is also variable, i.e. usually two, but sometimes several small extra anlagen that give rise to the formation of the third row, are present to the left of the RMAs. We posit that the Mudong population is an intermediate form between the three previously described populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequence data show that all populations of cluster with the type species of the genus, , in a clade nested within the Oxytrichidae.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000377
2015-09-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/65/9/3216.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000377&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Berger H. . ( 1999;). Monograph of the Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) (Monographiae Biologicae, vol. 78) Dordrecht: Springer;.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chen L. , Liu W. , Liu A. , Al-Rasheid K.A.S. , Shao C. . ( 2013a;). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a new marine hypotrichous ciliate, Hypotrichidium paraconicum n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). J Eukaryot Microbiol 60: 588–600 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen X. , Yan Y. , Hu X. , Zhu M. , Ma H. , Warren A. . ( 2013b;). Morphology and morphogenesis of a soil ciliate, Rigidohymena candens (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2011 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Oxytrichidae), with notes on its molecular phylogeny based on small-subunit rDNA sequence data. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63: 1912–1921 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chen X. , Miao M. , Ma H. , Al-Rasheid K.A.S. , Xu K. , Lin X. . ( 2014;). Morphology, ontogeny, and phylogeny of two brackish urostylid ciliates (Protist, Ciliophora, Hypotricha). J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 594–610 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Fan Y. , Chen X. , Hu X. , Shao C. , Al-Rasheid K.A.S. , Al-Farraj S.A. , Lin X. . ( 2014a;). Morphology and morphogenesis of Apoholosticha sinica n.g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia), with consideration of its systematic position among urostylids. Eur J Protistol 50: 78–88 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Fan Y. , Hu X. , Gao F. , Al-Farraj S.A. , Al-Rasheid K.A.S. . ( 2014b;). Morphology, ontogenetic features and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of a soil ciliate, Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Stichotrichia). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64: 4049–4060 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fan Y. , Pan Y. , Huang J. , Lin X. , Hu X. , Warren A. . ( 2014c;). Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of two novel brackish water hypotrich ciliates, with the establishment of a new genus, Antiokeronopsis gen. n. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 449–462 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Foissner W. , Filker S. , Stoeck T. . ( 2014;). Schmidingerothrix salinarum nov. spec. is the molecular sister of the large oxytrichid clade (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 61–74 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gao F. , Gao S. , Wang P. , Katz L.A. , Song W. . ( 2014;). Phylogenetic analyses of cyclidiids (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia) based on multiple genes suggest their close relationship with thigmotrichids. Mol Phylogenet Evol 75: 219–226 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gupta R. , Kamra K. , Arora S. , Sapra G.R. . ( 2003;). Pleurotricha curdsi (Shi, Warren and Song 2002) nov. comb. (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida): morphology and ontogenesis of an Indian population; redefinition of the genus. Eur J Protistol 39: 275–285 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hall T.A. . ( 1999;). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41: 95–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Heber D. , Stoeck T. , Foissner W. . ( 2014;). Morphology and ontogenesis of Psilotrichides hawaiiensis nov. gen., nov. spec. and molecular phylogeny of the Psilotrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 260–277 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Huang J. , Chen Z. , Song W. , Berger H. . ( 2014;). Three-gene based phylogeny of the Urostyloidea (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotricha), with notes on classification of some core taxa. Mol Phylogenet Evol 70: 337–347 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jiang J. , Huang J. , Li L. , Shao C. , Al-Rasheid K.A. , Al-Farraj S.A. , Chen Z. . ( 2013;). Morphology, ontogeny, and molecular phylogeny of two novel bakuellid-like hypotrichs (Ciliophora: Hypotrichia), with establishment of two new genera. Eur J Protistol 49: 78–92 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jung J.-H. , Park K.-M. , Min G.-S. . ( 2014;). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Pseudouroleptus jejuensis nov. spec., a new soil ciliate (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) from South Korea. Acta Protozool 53: 195–206.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kim J.H. , Vd’ačný P. , Shazib S.U.A. , Shin M.K. . ( 2014;). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Apoterritricha lutea n.g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Hypotrichia): a putative missing link connecting Cyrtohymena and Afrokeronopsis . J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 520–536 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kumar S. , Bharti D. , Marinsalti S. , Insom E. , La Terza A. . ( 2014;). Morphology, morphogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of Paraparentocirrus sibillinensis n. gen., n. sp., a Stylonychine Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) without transverse cirri. J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 247–259 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Küppers G.C. . ( 2014;). Morphology of Clapsiella magnifica gen. n., sp. n., a new hypotrichous ciliate with a curious dorsal ciliary pattern. Eur J Protistol 50: 373–381 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Li F. , Xing Y. , Li J. , Al-Rasheid K.A.S. , He S. , Shao C. . ( 2013;). Morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Perisincirra paucicirrata (Ciliophora, Kahliellidae), from the shoreline of the Yellow River, North China. J Eukaryot Microbiol 60: 247–256 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Li F. , Lv Z. , Yi Z. , Al-Farraj S.A. , Al-Rasheid K.A.S. , Shao C. . ( 2014;). Taxonomy and phylogeny of two species of the genus Deviata (Protista, Ciliophora) from China, with description of a new soil form, Deviata parabacilliformis sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64: 3775–3785 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lv Z. , Chen L. , Chen L. , Shao C. , Miao M. , Warren A. . ( 2013;). Morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new freshwater ciliate, Notohymena apoaustralis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae). J Eukaryot Microbiol 60: 455–466 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Medlin L. , Elwood H.L. , Stickel S. , Sogin M.L. . , ( 1988;). The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. Gene 71: 491–499.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Miller M.A. , Pfeiffer W. , Schwartz T. . ( 2010;). Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. . In Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE) 14 November 2010, New Orleans, LA, USA pp. 1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nylander J.A.A. . ( 2004;). MrModeltest 2.2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre Uppsala University; Uppsala, Sweden:.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Page R.D.M. . ( 1996;). TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12: 357–358 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Paiva T.S. , Dias R.J. , Da Silva-Neto I.D. . ( 2014;). Redescription of the little-known ciliate Apoamphisiella vernalis (Stokes, 1887) Berger, 2006 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 561–568 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Park K.M. , Jung J.H. , Min G.S. . ( 2013;). Morphology, morphogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of Anteholosticha multicirrata n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) with a note on morphogenesis of A. pulchra (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2003. J Eukaryot Microbiol 60: 564–577 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Penn O. , Privman E. , Ashkenazy H. , Landan G. , Graur D. , Pupko T. . ( 2010a;). guidance: a web server for assessing alignment confidence scores. Nucleic Acids Res 38: (Web Server) [CrossRef] [PubMed] W23–W28.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Penn O. , Privman E. , Landan G. , Graur D. , Pupko T. . ( 2010b;). An alignment confidence score capturing robustness to guide tree uncertainty. Mol Biol Evol 27: 1759–1767 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ronquist F. , Huelsenbeck J.P. . ( 2003;). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Shao C. , Ding Y. , Al-Rasheid K.A. , Al-Farraj S.A. , Warren A. , Song W. . ( 2013a;). Establishment of a new hypotrichous genus, Heterotachysoma n. gen. and notes on the morphogenesis of Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Eur J Protistol 49: 93–105 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Shao C. , Pan X. , Jiang J. , Ma H. , Al-Rasheid K.A.S. , Warren A. , Lin X. . ( 2013b;). A redescription of the oxytrichid Tetmemena pustulata (Müller, 1786) Eigner, 1999 and notes on morphogenesis in the marine urostylid Metaurostylopsis salina Lei et al. 2005 (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Eur J Protistol 49: 272–282 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Shao C. , Chen L. , Pan Y. , Warren A. , Miao M. . ( 2014a;). Morphology and phylogenetic position of the oxytrichid ciliates, Urosoma salmastra (Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Berger, 1999 and U. karinae sinense nov. sspec. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Eur J Protistol 50: 593–605 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Shao C. , Li L. , Zhang Q. , Song W. , Berger H. . ( 2014b;). Molecular phylogeny and ontogeny of a new ciliate genus, Paracladotricha salina n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 371–380 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Shao C. , Lv Z. , Jin L. , Warren A. . ( 2014c;). Morphogenesis of a unique pseudourostylid ciliate, Trichototaxis songi (Ciliophora, Urostylida). Eur J Protistol 50: 68–77 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Shi X. , Warren A. , Song W. . ( 2002;). Studies on morphology and morphogenesis of Allotricha curdsi sp.n. (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida). Acta Protozool 41: 397–405.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Singh J. , Kamra K. . ( 2013;). Paraurosomoida indiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an oxytrichid (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary, including note on non-oxytrichid Dorsomarginalia. Eur J Protistol 49: 600–610 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Singh J. , Kamra K. . ( 2014;). Molecular phylogeny of an Indian population of Kleinstyla dorsicirrata (Foissner, 1982) Foissner et al., 2002. comb. nov. (Hypotrichia, Oxytrichidae): an oxytrichid with incomplete dorsal kinety fragmentation. J Eukaryot Microbiol 61: 630–636 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Singh J. , Kamra K. , Sapra G.R. . ( 2013;). Morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of an Indian population of Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii, including remarks on the subgenus. Eur J Protistol 49: 283–297 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Stamatakis A. , Hoover P. , Rougemont J. . ( 2008;). A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML web-servers. Syst. Biol. 75: 758–771.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tamura K. , Dudley J. , Nei M. , Kumar S. . ( 2007;). mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24: 1596–1599 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Wilbert N. . ( 1975;). Eine verbesserte Technik der Protargolimprägnation für Ciliaten. Mikrokosmos 64: 171–179 (in German).
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Xu Y. , Li L. , Fan X. , Pan H. , Gu F. , Al-Farraj S.A. . ( 2015;). Systematic analyses of the genus Architricha and Pleurotricha curdsi (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae), with redescriptions of their morphology. Acta Protozool (in press).
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000377
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000377
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary Data



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error