Five isolates of a previously undescribed species of purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria were characterized. They were Gram-negative, had mobile, budding vibrioid cells and contained lamellar intracytoplasmic membranes. Cultures produced red pigments in the light. Live cells of photosynthetic cultures exhibited absorption maxima at 382, 460-464, 494-496, 534-538, 596, 804-806 and 870-874 nm, indicating the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids belonging to the spirilloxanthin series in cells. The new isolates grew anaerobically or microaerobically in the light, but not aerobically in the dark. Optimal growth occurred at 35-40 degrees C and at pH 6.5-8.5. Various organic compounds were used as photosynthetic electron donors and carbon sources. Sulfate was used as sulfur source for growth. Ubiquinone 10 was synthesized as the major quinone. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain gc(T), a representative of the new isolates, was closest to Rhodopseudomonas palustris, with a similarity of 97.5%. DNA-DNA hybridization further distinguished strain gc(T) from Rhodopseudomonas palustris at the species level. Therefore, the name Rhodopseudomonas faecalis sp. nov. was proposed for the new isolates. The type strain is gc(T) ( = AS1.2176(T) = JCM 11668(T)).


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