This paper reports transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence evidence for phragmoplast-mediated cytokinesis in the green alga, Trentepohlia (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). This type of cytokinesis is normally found only in land plants and some charophycean green algae. Earlier TEM work documented a phragmoplast in another trentepohlialean alga, Cephaleuros. Numerous molecular studies have shown that both Trentepohlia and Cephaleuros are clearly not in the charophycean (streptophyte) lineage of green algae. Also, details of vegetative cytokinesis in Trentepohlia and Cephaleuros indicate differences from the processes and structures observed in the streptophytes. Parallel evolution could be the explanation for a phragmoplast-mediated cytokinesis in both the chlorophycean Trentepohliales and the streptophyte lineage of charophycean green algae and land plants.


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