A polyphasic taxonomic study that included DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base ratio determinations, 16S rDNA sequence analyses, whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses and an extensive biochemical characterization was performed on 16 strains isolated from the environment, animals and human clinical samples. The isolates belonged to the genus Burkholderia, were phylogenetically closely related to Burkholderia graminis, Burkholderia caribensis and Burkholderia phenazinium and had G+C contents between 61.9 and 62.2 mol%. Seven strains isolated from the rhizosphere were assigned to Burkholderia caledonica sp. nov. [type strain LMG 19076T (= CCUG 42236T)]. Nine strains isolated from the environment, animals and human clinical samples were assigned to Burkholderia fungorum sp. nov. [type strain LMG 16225T (= CCUG 31961T)]. Differential tests for B. graminis, B. caribensis, B. phenazinium, B. caledonica and B. fungorum include the following: assimilation of trehalose, citrate, DL-norleucine, adipate and sucrose; nitrate reduction; growth in the presence of 0.5% NaCl; and beta-galactosidase activity.


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