Strains DCB-MT and DCB-F were isolated from anaerobic 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB)-mineralizing cultures enriched from marine sediments. The isolates are large, Gram-negative rods with a collar girdling each cell. The isolates are obligate anaerobes capable of reductive dechlorination of 3CB to benzoate. Growth by chlororespiration in strain DCB-MT yielded 1.7 g protein mol(-1) 3CB dechlorinated with lactate as the electron donor. Strain DCB-MT also used fumarate, sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and nitrate as physiological electron acceptors for growth, but grew poorly on sulfate and nitrate. Reductive dechlorination was inhibited completely by sulfite and thiosulfate but not by sulfate. Both strains were incapable of growth at NaCl concentrations below 0.32% (w/v). They grew well at sea-water salt concentrations; however, the optimum growth rate was achieved at a NaCl concentration half that of sea water. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis shows strains DCB-MT and DCB-F to be 99% similar to each other and 93% similar to their closest relative, Desulfomonile tiedjei strain DCB-1T. Strain DCB-MT can also be distinguished from strain DCB-1T by its inability to use acetate for growth on 3CB and by its requirement for NaCl. The morphology, physiology and 16S rDNA sequences of DCB-MT and DCB-F suggest that these strains represent a new, marine-adapted species of the genus Desulfomonile, designated Desulfomonile limimaris sp. nov. The type strain is strain DCB-MT (= ATCC 700979T).


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