The nucleotide sequences of the genes of 16S rRNAs were determined for the type strain Oscillochloris trichoides DG-6T and three new strains of Oscillochloris-like mesophilic filamentous green bacteria. Two major clusters have been found within the family Chloroflexaceae by phylogenetic-analysis: one cluster includes thermophilic species of Chloroflexus and the second includes mesophilic strains of Oscillochloris. The degree of relatedness of these clusters was below an intergeneric level, having only 82.5-86.5% of 16S rDNA sequence similarity. These phylogenetic data correlate well with the significant physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomical differences between members of both groups. Therefore, the Oscillochloris and Chloroflexus clusters should be considered as two separate families. The description of the new family, Oscillochloridaceae fam. nov., and emended descriptions of the genus Oscillochloris and the species Oscillochloris trichoides are presented.


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