An improved pulsed-field electrophoresis program was developed to study differently sized chromosomes within the genus The number of chromosomes in the type strains was shown to be nine in and , 12 in and , 16 in and seven in The sizes of individual chromosomes were resolved and the approximate genome sizes were determined by the addition of individual chromosomes of the karyotypes. Apparently, the genome of , which is the only yeast to contain small chromosomes, is larger than that of On the other hand, other species exhibited genome sizes that were 10–25% smaller than that of Well-defined karyotypes represent the basis for future genome mapping and sequencing projects, as well as studies of the origin of the modern genomes.


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