1887

Abstract

Thirty strains from the 11 species of the genus were studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis at 12 enzyme loci, all of which were polymorphic. The mean number of alleles per locus was 6.5. Twenty-five electrophoretic types were distinguished. Grouping of the strains by cluster analysis was in general agreement with species delineation as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization, except for the strains of , which were scattered throughout the genus, reflecting previously recognized taxonomic uncertainties. Analysis of the clonality within that this population was relatively heterogeneous and a lack of gene linkage disequilibrium could not be excluded. There was a genetic discrimination between the pathogenic species and the saprophytic ones. The phenotypically intermediate species () were also genetically separated and were probably closer to the saprophytes than to the pathogens.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-49-1-231
1999-01-01
2024-07-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/49/1/ijs-49-1-231.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-49-1-231&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aeschbacher M., Piffaretti J.-C. 1989; Population genetics of human and animal enteric Campylobacter strains. Infect Immun 57:1432–1437
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altwegg M., Reeves M. W., Altwegg-Bissig R., Brenner D. J. 1991; Multilocus enzyme analysis of the genus Aeromonas and its use for species identification. Zentbl Bakteriol 275:28–45
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beutin L., Ørskov I., Ørskov F., Zimmermann S., Prada J., Gelderblom H., Stephan R., Whittam T. S. 1990; Clonal diversity and virulence factors in strains of Escherichia coli of the classic enteropathogenic serogroup 0114. J Infect Dis 162:1329–1334
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boerlin P. 1997; Applications of multilocus enzyme electro-phoresis in medical microbiology. J Microbiol Methods 28:221–231
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boerlin P., Rocourt J., Piffaretti J.-C. 1991; Taxonomy of the genus Listeria by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:59–64
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boerlin P., Peter O., Bretz A. G., Postic D., Baranton G., Piffaretti J.-C. 1992; Population genetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Infect Immun 60:1677–1683
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boursaux-Eude C., Saint Girons I., Zuerner R. 1995; IS1500, an IS3-like element from Leptospira interrogans . Microbiology 141:2165–2173
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brendle J. J., Rogul M., Alexander A. D. 1974; DNA hybridization among selected leptospiral serotypes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 25:205–214
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brenner D. J., Kaufmann A. F. 1994; DNA relatedness of Leptospiraceae serovars. Leptospira molecular biology home page http://www.pasteur.fr/Bio/Leptospira/Leptospira.html/
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brown A. H. D., Feldman M. W., Nevo E. 1980; Multilocus structure of natural populations of Hordeum spontaneum . Genetics 96:523–536
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Corin R. E., Boggs E., Cox C. D. 1978; Enzymatic degradation of H2O2 by Leptospira . Infect Immun 22:672–675
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dikken H., Kmety E. 1978; Serological typing methods of leptospires. Methods Microbiol 11:259–307
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ellinghausen H. C., McCullough W. G. 1965; Nutrition of Leptospira pomona and growth of 13 other serotypes: fractionation of oleic albumin complex and a medium of bovine albumin and polysorbate 80. Am J Vet Res 26:45–51
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ellis W. A., Montgomery J. M., Thiermann A. B. 1991; Restriction endonuclease analysis as a taxonomic tool in the study of pig isolates belonging to the Australis serogroup of Leptospira interrogans . J Clin Microbiol 29:957–961
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gravekamp C., Van De Kemp H., Franzen M., Carrington D., Schoone G. J., Van Eys G. J. J. M., Everard C. O. R., Hartskeerl R. A., Terpstra W. J. 1993; Detection of seven species of pathogenic leptospires by PCR using two sets of primers. J Gen Microbiol 139:1691–1700
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Harris H., Hopkinson D. A. 1976 Handbook of Enzyme Electrophoresis in Human Genetics New York: Elsevier;
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Herrmann J. L., Baril C., Bellenger E., Perolat P., Baranton G., Saint Girons I. 1991; Genome conservation in isolates of Leptospira interrogans . J Bacteriol 173:7582–7588
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Herrmann J. L., Bellenger E., Perolat P., Baranton G., Saint Girons I. 1992; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of NotI digests of leptospiral DNA: a new rapid method of serovar identification. J Clin Microbiol 30:1696–1702
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hookey J. V. 1992; Detection of Leptospiraceae by amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA. FEMS Microbiol Lett 90:267–274
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hookey J. V., Bryden J., Gatehouse L. 1993; The use of 16S rDNA sequence analysis to investigate the phylogeny of Leptospiraceae and related spirochaetes. J Gen Microbiol 139:2585–2590
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Johnson R. C., Faine S. 1984; Family II. Leptospiraceae . In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 162–67 Krieg N. R., Holt J. G. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Krawiec S., Riley M. 1990; Organization of the bacterial chromosome. Microbiol Rev 54:503–539
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Letocart M., Baranton G., Perolat P. 1997; Rapid identification of pathogenic Leptospira species (Leptospira interrogans, L. borgpetersenii and L. kirschneri) with species-specific DNA probes produced by arbitrarily primed PCR. J Clin Microbiol 35:248–253
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lymbery A. J., Hampson D. J., Hopkins R. M., Combs B., Mhoma J. R. L. 1990; Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for identification and typing of Treponema hyodysenteriae and related spirochaetes. Vet Microbiol 22:89–99
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Maynard Smith J., Smith N. H., O’Rourke M., Spratt B. G. 1993; How clonal are bacteria?. Proc Natl Acad SciUSA 90:4384–4388
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Murgia R., Riquelme N., Baranton G., Cinco M. 1997; Oligonucleotides specific for pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira occurring in water. FEMS Microbiol Lett 148:27–34
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Patton C. M., Wachsmuth I. K., Evins G. M., Kiehlbauch J. A., Plikaytis B. D., Troup N., Tompkins L., Lior H. 1991; Evaluation of 10 methods to distinguish epidemic-associated Campylobacter strains. J Clin Microbiol 29:680–688
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Perolat P., Lecuyer I., Postic D., Baranton G. 1993; Diversity of ribosomal DNA fingerprints of Leptospira serovars provides a database for subtyping and species assignation. Res Microbiol 144:5–15
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Perolat P., Merien F., Ellis W. A., Baranton G. 1994; Characterization of Leptospira isolates from serovar hardjo by ribotyping, arbitrarily primed PCR, and mapped restriction site polymorphisms. J Clin Microbiol 32:1949–1957
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Perolat P., Chappel R. J., Adler B., Baranton G., Bulach D. M., Billinghurst M. L., Letocart M., Merien F., Serrano M. S. 1998; Leptospirafainei sp. nov., isolated from pigs in Australia. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:851–858
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ralph D., McClelland M., Welsh J., Baranton G., Perolat P. 1993; Leptospira species categorized by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by mapped restriction polymorphisms in PCR-amplified rRNA genes. J Bacteriol 175:973–981
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ramadass P., Jarvis B. D. W., Corner R. J., Penny D., Marshall R. B. 1992; Genetic characterization of pathogenic Leptospira species by DNA hybridization. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:215–219
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Raymond M., Rousset F. 1995; genepop version 1.2: population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Hered 86:248–249
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Saint Girons I., Margarita D., Amouriaux P., Baranton G. 1990; First isolation of bacteriophages for a spirochaete : potential genetic tools for Leptospira . Res Microbiol 141:1131–1138
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Saitou N., Nei M. 1987; The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Segers R. P. A. M., Van Gestel J. A., Van Eys G. J. J. M., van der Zeijst B. A. M., Gaastra W. 1992; Presence of putative sphyngomyelinase genes among members of the family Leptospiraceae . Infect Immun 60:1707–1710
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Selander R. K., Caugant D. A., Ochman H., Musser J. M., Gilmour N. M., Whittam T. S. 1986; Methods of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for bacterial population genetics and systematics. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:873–884
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Selander R. K., Beltran P., Smith N. H., Barker R. M., Crichton P. B., Old D. C., Musser J. M., Whittam T. S. 1990; Genetic population structure, clonal phylogeny, and pathogenicity of Salmonella paratyphi B. Infect Immun 58:1891–1901
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Takezaki N., Nei M. 1996; Genetic distances and reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from microsatellite DNA. Genetics 144:389–399
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Wasem C. F., McCarthy C. M., Murray L. W. 1991; Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis of the Mycobacterium avium complex and other mycobacteria. J Clin Microbiol 29:264–271
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Yakrus M. A., Reeves M. W., Hunter S. B. 1992; Characterization of isolates of Mycobacterium avium serotypes 4 and 8 from patients with AIDS by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 30:1474–1478
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Yasuda P. H., Steigerwalt A. G., Sulzer K. R., Kaufmann A. F., Rogers F., Brenner D. J. 1987; Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between serogroups and serovars in the family Leptospiraceae with proposals for seven new Leptospira species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:407–415
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Zuerner R. 1993; Nucleotide sequence analysis of IS 1533 from Leptospira borgpetersenii : identification and expression of two IS-encoded proteins. Plasmid 31:1–11
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-49-1-231
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-49-1-231
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error