1887

Abstract

RFLP analyses of 16S rDNA nested PCR products from 34 phytoplasma strains with 17 restriction enzymes delineated distinct pattern types. Based on similarity coefficients derived from RFLP analyses, the 34 representative phytoplasma strains were differentiated into 14 major groups (termed 16Sr groups) and 32 sub-groups. The similarity coefficients of RFLP patterns between distinct groups were 90% or below. By including additional groups and sub-groups from which RFLP analyses were not performed but for which 16S rDNA sequence data were available to predict restriction sites, a total of 14 groups and 41 sub-groups were proposed. By combined RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences, thus far, a total of 46 subgroups have been recognized. The phytoplasma 16Sr groups were consistent with the phylogenetic groups (subclades) defined by phylogenetic analysis of near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that the RFLP-based groups are phylogenetically valid. The approach using RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA (and ribosomal protein gene sequences) provides a simple, reliable and rapid means for differentiation and classification of unknown phytoplasmas.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-4-1153
1998-10-01
2024-04-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/48/4/ijs-48-4-1153.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-4-1153&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahrens U., Lorenz K. H., Seemüller E. 1993; Genetic diversity among mycoplasmalike organisms associated with stone fruit diseases. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 6:686–691
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahrens U., Seemüller E. 1992; Detection of DNA of plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms by a poly-merase chain reaction that amplifies a sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Phytopathology 82:828–832
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Alma A., Davis R. E., Vibio M., Danielli A., Bosco D., Arzone A., Bertaccini A. 1996; Element infection of grapevines in northern Italy by phytoplasmas including 16S rRNA RFLP sub-group 16SrI-B strains previously unreported in this host. Plant Dis 80:418–421
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Amann R. I., Ludwig W., Schleifer H. 1995; Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Rev 59:143–169
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ash C., Farraw A. E., Dorsch M., Stackebrandt E., Collins M. D. 1991; Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus, and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. Int J Svst Bacteriol 41:343–346
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bertaccini A., Davis R. E., Lee I.-M., Conti M., Dally E. L., Douglas S. M. 1990; Detection of chrysanthemum yellows mycoplasmalike organism by dot hybridization and Southern blot analysis. Plant Dis 74:40–43
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bertaccini A., Vibio M., Davis R. E., Lee I.-M. 1993; Molecular characterization of some mycoplasmalike organisms infecting plants in Italy. Petria G Patol Piante 3:9
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bertaccini A., Vibio M., Stefani E. 1995; Detection and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas infecting grapevine in Liguria (Italy). Phvtopathol Mediterr 34:137–141
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bianco P. A., Davis R. E., Prince J. P., Lee I.-M., Gundersen D. E., Fortusini A., Belli G. 1993; Double and single infections by aster yellows and elm yellows MLOs in grapevines with symptoms characteristic of flavescence doree. Riv Patol Veg SV 3:69–82
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Boddinghaus B., Wolters J., Heikens W., Bottger E. C. 1990; Phylogenetic analysis and identification of different serovars of Mycobacterium intracellulare at the molecular level. FEMS Microbiol Lett 70:197–204
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bonnet F., Saillard C, Kollar A., Seemüller E., Dosba F., Bove J. M. 1990; Molecular probes for the apple proliferation MLO. Zentbl Bakteriol Suppl 20:908–909
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chen J. C., Chang C. J., Jarret R., Gawel N. 1992; Isolation and cloning of DNA fragments from mycoplasmalike organism associated with walnut witchesbroom disease. Phytopathology 82:306–309
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chen T.-A., Lei J. D., Lin C. P. 1992; Detection and identification of plant and insect mollicutes. In The Myco-plasmas 5393–424 Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chen K. H., Credi R. C., Loi N., Maixner M., Chen T.-A. 1994; Identification and grouping of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with grapevine yellows and clover phyllody diseases based on immunological and molecular analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:1905–1913
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Chiykowski L. N. 1962; Scaphytopious acutus (Say), a newly dicovered vector of celery-infecting aster-yellows virus. Can J Bot 40:799–801
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chiykowski L. N. 1991; Vector-pathogen-host plant relationships of clover phyllody mycoplasmalike organism and the vector leafhopper Paraphlepsius irroratus . Can J Plant Pathol 13:11–18
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chiykowski L. N., Sinha R. C. 1982; Herbaceous host plants of peach eastern X- disease agent. Can J Plant Pathol 4:8–15
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chiykowski L. N., Sinha R. C. 1989; Differentiation of MLO disease by means of symptomatology and vector transmission. Zentbl Bakteriol Hyg Suppl 20:280–287
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Clark M. F., Morton A., 8t Buss S. L. 1989; Preparation of MLO immunogens from plants and a comparison of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies made against primula yellows MLO-associated antigens. Ann Appl Biol 114:111–124
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Daire X., Boudon-Padieu E., ., Berville A., Schneider B., Caudwell A. 1992; Cloned DNA probes for detection of grapevine flavescence dorée mycoplasma-like organism (MLO). Ann Appl Biol 121:95–103
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Daire X., Clair D., Larrue J., Boudon-Padieu E., Caudwell A. 1993; Diversity among mycoplasma-like organisms inducing grapevine yellows in France. Vitis 32:159–163
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Daire X., Clair D., Larrue J. 11 other authors 1993; Occurrence of diverse MLOs in tissues of grapevine affected by grapevine yellows in different countries. Vitis 32:247–248
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dale J. L., Smith L. D. 1975; Mycoplasmalike bodies observed in tomato plants with big bud in Arkansas. Plant Dis Rep 59:455–458
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Davies D. L., Barbara D. J., Clark M. F. 1995; The detection of MLOs associated with pear decline in pear trees and pear psyllids by polymerase chain rection. Act a Hortic 386:484–488
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Davies D. L., 8i Clark M. F. 1992; Production and characterization of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against peach yellow leafroll MLO-associated antigens. Acta Hortic 383:275–283
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Davis M. J., Tsai J. H., Cox R. L., McDaniel L. L., Harrison N. A. 1988; Cloning of chromosomal and extra-chromosomal DNA of the mycoplasma-like organism that causes maize bushy stunt disease. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 1:295–302
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Davis R. E., Dally E. L., Bertaccini A. 7 other authors 1993; Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and dot hybridization distiguish mycoplasmalike organisms associated with flavescence dorée and southern European grapevine yellows disease in Italy. Phytopathology 83:772–776
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Davis R. E., Dally E. L., Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M., Habili N. 1997; Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:262–269
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Davis R. E., Lee I.-M. 1993; Cluster-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rDNA sequences for detection and identification of mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology 83:1008–1011
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Davis R. E., Lee I.-M., Douglas S. M., Dally E. L. 1990; Molecular cloning and detection of chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA of the mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) associated with little leaf disease in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Phytopathology 80:789–793
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Davis R. E., Prince J. P., Hammond R. W., Dally E. L., Lee I.-M. 1992; Polymerase chain reaction detection of Italian periwinkle virescence mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) and investigation of genetic relatedness with other MLOs. Phytopathol Mediterr 31:5–12
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Davis R. E., Sinclair W. A., Lee I.-M., Dally E. L. 1991; Cloned DNA probes specific for detection of a mycoplasmalike organism associated with ash yellows. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 5:163–169
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Deng S., Hiruki C. 1991; Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and non-culturable mollicutes. J Microbiol Methods 14:53–61
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Deng S., Hiruki C. 1991; Genetic relatedness between two non-culturable mycoplasmalike organisms revealed by nucleic acid hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Phytopathology 81:1475–1479
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Errampalli D., Fletcher J., Claypool P. L. 1991; Incidence of yellows in carrot and lettuce, and characterization of mycoplasmalike organism isolates in Oklahoma. Plant Dis 75:579–584
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Firrao G. 1996; Molecular characterization of a phytoplasma causing phyllody in clover and other herbaceous hosts in northern Italy. Eur J Plant Pathol 102:817–822
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Firrao G., Gobbi E., Locci R. 1993; Use of polymerase chain reaction to produce oligonucleotide probes for mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology 83:602–607
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Fox G. E., Wisotzkey J. D., Jurtshuk P. 1992; How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:166–170
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Freitag J. H. 1964; Interaction and mutual suppression among three strains of aster yellows virus. Virology 24:401–413
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Gibb K. S. 1996; Phytoplasmas associated with papaya diseases in Australia. Plant Dis 80:174–178
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gibb K. S., Padovan A. C., Mogen B. D. 1995; Studies on sweet potato little-leaf phytoplasma detected in sweet potato and other plant species in northern Australia. Phytopathology 85:169–174
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Giunchedi L., Pollini C. P., Bissarli S., Vicchi V., Babini A. R. 1994; PCR detection of MLOs in quick decline-affected pear trees in Italy. Ann Appl Biol 124:399–403
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Golino D. A., Oldfield G. N., Gumpf D. J. 1989; Experimental hosts of the beet leafhopper transmitted virescence agent. Plant Dis 73:850–854
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Goodwin P. H., Xue B. G., Kuske C. R., Sears M. K. 1994; Amplification of plasmid DNA to detect plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. Ann Appl Biol 124:27–36
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Griffiths H. M., Gundersen D. E., Sinclair W. A., Lee I.-M., Davis R. E. 1994; Mycoplasmalike organisms from milkweed, goldenrod, and spiraea represent two new 16S rRNA sub-groups and three new strain subclusters related to peach X-disease. Can J Plant Pathol 16:255–266
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Griffiths H. M., Sinclair W. A., Davis R. E., Lee I.-M., Dally E. L., Guo H., Chen T.-A., Hibben C. R. 1994; Characterization of mycoplasmalike organisms from Fraxinus, Syringa, and associated plants from geographically diverse sites. Phytopathology 84:119–126
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M. 1996; Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested-PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. Phytopathol Mediterr 35:144–151
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M., Chang C. J., Davis R. E. 1994; RFLP analyses of ribosomal protein genes reveal strain diversity in MLO 16S rRNA groups I and III. Phytopathology 84:1128
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M., Rehner S. A., Davis R. E., Kingsbury D. T. 1994; Phylogeny of mycoplasmalike organisms (phytoplasmas): a basis for their classification. J Bacteriol 176:5244–5254
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M., Schaff D. A., Harrison N. A., Chang C. J., Davis R. E., Kingsbury D. T. 1996; Genomic diversity and differentiation among phytoplasma strains in 16S rRNA group I (aster yellows and related phytoplasmas) and III (X-disease and related phytoplasmas). Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:64–75
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Guo Y. H., Walla J. A., Cheng M., Lee I.-M. 1996; X- disease confirmation and distribution in chokecherry in North Dakota. Plant Dis 80:95–102
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Harrison N. A. 1996; PCR assay for detection of the phytoplasma associated with maize bushy stunt disease. Plant Dis 80:263–269
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Harrison N. A., Bourne C. M., Cox R. L., Tsai J. H., Richardson P. A. 1992; DNA probes for detection of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with lethal yellowing disease of palms in Florida. Phytopathology 82:216–224
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Harrison N. A., Richardson P. A. 1994; Comparative investigation of MLOs associated with Caribbean and African coconut lethal decline diseases by DNA hybridization and PCR assays. Plant Dis 78:507–511
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Harrison N. A., Richardson P. A., Kramer J. B., Tsai J. H. 1994; Detection of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with lethal yellowing disease of palms in Florida by polymerase chain reaction. Plant Pathol 43:998–1008
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Harrison N. A., Tsai J. H., Bourne C. M., Richardson P. A. 1991; Molecular cloning and detection of chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with witches’-broom disease of pigeon pea in Florida. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 4:300–307
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Hibben C. R., Sinclair W. A., Davis R. E., Alexander J. H. 1991; Relatedness of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with ash yellows and lilac witches’-broom. Plant Dis 75:1227–1230
    [Google Scholar]
  58. International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes 1993; Minutes of the interim meetings, 1 and 2 August, 1992, Ames, Iowa. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:394–397
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Jagoueix S., Bové J. M., Gamier M. 1994; The phloem-limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of the a subdivision of the Proteobacteria . Iynt J Syst Bacteriol 44:379–386
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Jarausch W., Saillard C., Dosba F., Bove J. M. 1994; Differentiation of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in European fruit trees by PCR using specific primers derived from the sequence of a chromosomal fragment of the apple proliferation MLO. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:2916–2923
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Jomantiene R., Davis R. E., Maas J., Dally E. L. 1996; Phytoplasmas associated with disease of strawberry in Florida. Phytopathology 86:SI23
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Jomantiene R., Davis R. E., Maas J., Dally E. L. 1998; Classification of new phytoplasmas associated with diseases of strawberry in Florida based on analysis of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene operon sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:269–277
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Keane G., Edwards A., Clark M. F. 1996; Differentiation of group 16SrI-B aster yellows phytoplasmas with monoclonal antibodies. In 1996 BCPC Symposium Proceedings No. 65: Diagnostics in Crop Production263–268
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kirkpatrick B. C., Fisher G. F., Fraser J. D., Purcell A. H. 1990; Epidemiological and phylogenetic studies on western-X disease mycoplasmalike organisms. In Recent Advances in Mycoplasmology288–297 Stanek G. H., Casell G. H., Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F. Stuttgart: Fisher Verlag;
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Kirkpatrick B. C., Smart C. D. 1995; Phytoplasmas. can phylogeny provide the means to understand pathogenicity?. In Advances in Botanical Research188–212 Andrews J. H., Tommerup I. C. New York: Academic Press:
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kirkpatrick B. C., Smart C. D., Gardner S. L. 9 other authors 1994; Phylogenetic relationships of plant pathogenic MLOs established by 16/23S rDNA spacer sequences. IOM Lett 3:228–229
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Kirkpatrick B. C., Stenger D. C., Morris T. J., Purcell A. H. 1987; Cloning and detection of DNA from a nonculturable plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organism. Science 238:197–200
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kison H., Schneider B., Seemüller E. 1994; Restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the apple proliferation mycoplasmalike organism. J Phytopathol 141:395–401
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Ko H. C., Lin C. P. 1994; Development and application of cloned DNA probes for a mycoplasmalike organism associated with sweet potato witches’-broom. Phytopathology 84:468–473
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Kunkel L. O. 1926; Studies on aster yellows. Am J Bot 23:646–705
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Kuske C. R., Kirkpatrick B. C. 1992; Phylogenetic relationships between the western aster yellows mycoplasmalike organisms and other prokaryotes established by 16S rRNA gene sequence. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:226–233
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kuske C. R., Kirkpatrick B. C., Davis M. J., Seemüller E. 1991; DNA hybridization between western aster yellows mycoplasmalike organism plasmids and extrachromosomal DNA from other plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 4:75–80
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Lee I.-M., Bartoszyk I. M., Gundersen-Rindal D. E., Davis R. E. 1997; Phylogeny and classification of bacteria in the genera Clavibacter and Rathayibacter on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:2631–2636
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Lee I.-M., Bertaccini A., Vibio M., Gundersen D. E. 1995; Detection of multiple phytoplasmas in perennial fruit trees with decline symptoms in Italy. Phytopathology 85:728–735
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Lee I.-M., Bertaccini A., Vibio M., Gundersen D. E., Davis R. E., Mittempergher L., Conti M., Gennari F. 1995; Detection and characterization of phytoplasmas associated with disease in Ulmus and Rubus in northern and central Italy. Phytopathol Mediterr 34:174–183
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Lee I.-M., Davis R. E. 1988; Detection and investigation of genetic relatedness among aster yellows and other mycoplasmalike organisms by using cloned DNA and RNA probes. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 1:303–310
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Lee I.-M., Davis R. E. 1992; Mycoplasmas which infect plants and insects. In Mycoplasmas: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis379–390 Maniloff J., McElhansey R. N., Finch L. R., Baseman J. B. Washington: DC : American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Lee I.-M., Davis R. E., Chen T.-A., Chiykowski L. N., Fletcher J., Hiruki C., Schaff D. A. 1992; A genotype-based system for identification and classification of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in the aster yellows MLO strain cluster. Phytopathology 82:977–986
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Lee I.-M., Davis R. E., Hiruki C. 1991; Genetic relatedness among clover proliferation mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and other MLOs investigated by nucleic acid hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:3565–3569
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Lee I.-M., Davis R. E., Sinclair W. A., DeWitt N. D., Conti M. 1993; Genetic relatedness of mycoplasmalike organisms detected in Ulmus spp. in USA and Italy by means of DNA probes and polymerase chain reactions. Phytopathology 83:829–833
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Lee I.-M., Gundersen D. E., Davis R. E., Chiykowski L. N. 1992; Identification and analysis of a genomic strain cluster of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with Canadian peach (eastern) X-disease, western X-disease, and clover yellow edge. J Bacteriol 174:6694–6698
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Lee I.-M., Gundersen D. E., Hammond R. W., Davis R. E. 1994; Use of mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) group-specific oligonucleotide primers for nested-PCR assays to detect element-MLO infections in a single host plant. Phytopathology 84:559–566
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Lee I.-M., Hammond R. W., Davis R. E., Gundersen D. E. 1993; Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology 83:834–842
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Lee I.-M., Klopmeyer M., Bartoszyk I. M., Gundersen-Rindal D. E., ., Chou S., Thomson K. L., Eisenreich R. 1997; Phytoplasma induced free-branching in commercial poin-settia cultivars. Nature Biotechnol 15:178–182
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Lee I.-M., Pastore M., Vibio M., Danielli A., Attathom S., Davis R. E., Bertaccini A. 1997; Detection and characterization of phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass (Poa annua) white leaf in southern Italy. Eur J Plant Pathol 103:251–254
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Lee I.-M., Zhu S., Gundersen D. E., Zhang C., Hadidi A. 1995; Detection and identification of a new phytoplasma associated with cherry lethal yellows in China. Phytopathology 85:1179
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Liefting L. W., Andersen M. T., Beever R. E., Gardner R. C., Foster L. S. 1996; Sequence heterogeneity in the two 16S rRNA genes of Phormium yellow leaf phytoplasma. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:3133–3139
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Lim P. O., Sears B. B. 1989; 16S rRNA sequence indicates that plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms are evolutionarily distinct from animal mycoplasmas. J Bacteriol 111:5901–5906
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Lim P. O., Sears B. B. 1991; DNA sequence of the ribosomal protein genes rpl2 and rps19 from a plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organism. FEMS Microbiol Lett 84:71–74
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Lim P. O., Sears B. B. 1992; Evolutionary relationships of a plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organism and Achole-plasma laidlawii deduced from two ribosomal protein gene sequences. J Bacteriol 174:2606–2611
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Lin C. P., Chen T.-A. 1985; Monoclonal antibodies against the aster agent. Science 227:1233–1235
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Loi N., Carraro L., Musetti R., Pertot I., Osier R. 1995; Dodder transmission of two different MLOs from plum trees affected by a ‘leptonecrosis’. Acta Hortic 386:465–470
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Lorenz K. H., Schneider B., Ahrens U., Seemüller E. 1995; Detection of the apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas by PCR amplification of ribosomal and nonribosomal DNA. Phytopathology 85:771–776
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Maixner M., Ahrens U., Seemüller E. 1994; Detection of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with a yellows disease grapevine in Germany. J Phytopathol 142:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Maixner M., Ahrens U., Seemüller E. 1995; Detection of the German grapevine yellows (Vergibungskrankheit) MLO in grapevine, alternative hosts and a vector by a specific PCR procedure. Eur J Plant Pathol 101:241–250
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Marcone C., DiSerio F., Ragozzino A. 1995; Peach rosette: a disease associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. Acta Hortic 386:471–479
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Marcone C., Ragozzino A., Schneider B., Lauer U., Smart C. D., Seemüller E. 1996; Genetic characterization and classification of two phytoplasmas associated with spartium witches'-broom disease. Plant Dis 80:365–371
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Marcone C., Ragozzino A., Seemüller E. 1996; Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas of the elm yellows and apple proliferation groups in diseased shrubs, shade trees, and forest trees in Europe. IOM Lett 4:214
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Marcone C., Ragozzino A., Seemüller E. 1996; Detection of an elm yellows-related phytoplasma in eucalyptus trees affected by little-leaf disease in Italy. Plant Dis 80:669–673
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Mäurer R., Seemüller E., Sinclair W. A. 1993; Genetic relatedness of mycoplasmalike organisms affecting elm, alder, and ash in Europe and North America. Phytopathology 83:971–976
    [Google Scholar]
  101. McCoy R. E., Caudwell A., Chang C. J. 16 other authors 1989; Plant diseases associated with mycoplasmalike organisms. In The Mycoplasmas 5545–560 Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Murray R. G. E., Schleifer K. H. 1994; Taxonomic notes : a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of prokaryotes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:174–176
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Nakashima K., Kato S., Iwanami S., Murata N. 1993; DNA probes reveal relatedness of rice yellow dwarf mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and distinguish them from other MLOs. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:1206–1212
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Namba S., Kato S., Iwanami S., Oyaizu H., Shiozawa H., Tsuchizaki T. 1993; Detection and differentiation of plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms using poly-merase chain reaction. Phytopathology 83:786–791
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Namba S., Oyaizu H., Kato S., Iwanami S., Tsuchizaki T. 1993; Phylogenetic diversity of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:461–467
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Nei M., Li W.-H. 1979; Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc Nati Acad SciUSA 76:5269–5273
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Okuda S., Prince J. P., Davis R. E., Dally E. L., Lee I.-M., Mogen B. 1997; Two groups of phytoplasmas from Japan distinguished on the basis of amplification and restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Plant Dis 81:301–305
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Padovan A. C., Gibb K. S., Bertaccini A., Bonfiglioli R. E., Magnet P. A., Sears B. B. 1995; Molecular detection of the Australian grapevine yellows phytoplasma and comparison with grapevine yellows phytoplasmas from Italy. Aust J Grape Wine Res 1:25–31
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Poggi-Pollini C., Giunchedi L., Seemüller E., Filippini G., Vindimian G. 1995; Etiological studies of apple rubbery wood disease. Acta Hortic 385:503–505
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Prince J. P., Davis R. E., Wolf T. K., Lee I.-M., Mogen B. D., Dally E. L., Bertaccini A., Credi R. C., Barba M. 1993; Molecular detection of diverse mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) associated with grapevine yellows and their classification with aster yellows, X-disease, and elm yellows MLOs. Phytopathology 83:1130–1137
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Rogali T., Wolters J., Flohr T., Böttger E. C. 1990; Towards a phylogeny and definition of species at the molecular level within the genus Mycobacterium . Int J Syst Bacteriol 40:323–330
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., Maniatis T. 1989; Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual. , 2nd. Cold Spring Harbor: NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Schaff D. A., Lee I.-M., Davis R. E. 1992; Sensitive detection and identification of mycoplasmalike organisms by polymerase chain reactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 186:1503–1509
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Schneider B., Ahrens U., Kirkpatrick B. C., Seemüller E. 1993; Classification of plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms using restriction-site analysis of PCR-amplifìed 16S rDNA. J Gen Microbiol 139:519–527
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Schneider B., Cousin M. T., Klinkong S., Seemüller E. 1995; Taxonomic relatedness and phylogenetic positions of phytoplasmas associated with diseases of faba bean, sunhemp, sesame, soybean, and eggplant. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 102:225–232
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Schneider B., Gibb K. S. 1997; Detection of phytoplasma in decline pears in southern Australia. Plant Dis 81:254–258
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Schneider B., Seemüller E. 1994; Presence of two sets of ribosomal genes in phytopathogenic mollicutes. Appl Environ Microbiol 141:173–185
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Schneider B., Seemüller E., Smart C. D., Kirkpatrick B. C. 1995; Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms or phytoplasmas. In Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmologw I369–380 Razin R., Tully J. G. San Diego: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Sears B. B., 8. Kirkpatrick B. C. 1994; Unveiling the evolutionary relationships of plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. ASM News 60:307–312
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Sears B. B., Lim O., Holland N., Kirkpatrick B. C., Klomparens K. L. 1989; Isolation and characterization of DNA from a mycoplasma-like organism. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 2:175–180
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Seemüller E., Schneider B., Maurer R. 8 other authors 1994; Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:440–446
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Shaw M. E., Kirkpatrick B. C., Golino D. A. 1991; Causal agent of tomato big bud disease in California is the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent. Phytopathology 81:1210
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Shiomi T., 8i Sugiura M. 1984; Differences among Macrosteles orientalis-transmitted MLO, potato purple-top wilt in Japan, and aster yellows MLO from USA. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 50:455–460
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Shiomi T., Sugiura M. 1984; Grouping of mycoplasmalike organisms transmitted by the leafhopper vector, Macrosteles orientalis Virvaste, based on host range. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 50:149–157
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Sinclair W. A. 1995; Epidemiology of a slow-decline phytoplasmal disease: ash yellows on old-field sites in New York State. Phytopathology 85:123–128
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Sinclair W. A., Griffiths H. M., Lee I.-M. 1994; Mycoplasmalike organisms as causes of slow growth and decline of trees and shrubs. J Aboric 20:176–189
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sinclair W. A., luli R. J., Dyer A. T., Marshall P. T., Matteoni J. A., Hibben C. R., Stanosz G. R., Burns B. S. 1990; Ash yellows: geographic range and association with decline of white ash. Plant Dis 74:604–607
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Smart C. D., Schneider B., Blomquist C. L., Guerra L. J., Harrison N. A., Ahrens U., Lorenz K. H., Seemüller E., Kirkpatrick B. C. 1996; Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:2988–2993
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Stackebrandt E., Goebel B. M. 1994; Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:846–849
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Toth K. F., Harrison N. A., Sears B. B. 1994; Phylogenetic relationships among members of the class Mollicutes deduced from rps3 gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:119–124
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Vandamme P., Pot B., Gillis M., Vos P. De, Kersters K., Swings J. 1996; Polyphasic taxonomy, a consensus approach to bacterial systematics. Microbiol Rev 60:407–438
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Vega F. E., Davis R. E., Barbosa P., Dally E. L., Purcell A. H., Lee I.-M. 1993; Detection of a plant pathogen in a nonvector insect species by the polymerase chain reaction. Phytopathology 83:621–624
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Vibio M., Bertaccini A., Lee I.-M., Davis R. E., Clark M. F. 1994; Characterization of aster yellows and related European mycoplasmalike organisms maintained in periwinkle plants and shoot-tip culture. IOM Lett 3:297–298
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Vibio M., Bertaccini A., Lee I.-M., Davis R. E., Clark M. F. 1996; Differentiation and classification of aster yellows and related European phytoplasmas. Phytopathol Medherr 35:33–42
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Vibio M., Bertaccini A., Lee I.-M., Davis R. E., Minucci C., Milne R. G. 1994; Etiology of lettuce yellows in Italy: genetic characterization of associated mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathol Mediterr 33:179–186
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Wayne L. G., Brenner D. J., Colwell R. R. 9 other authors 1987; International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology . Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Svst Bacteriol 37:463–464
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Weisburg W. G., Tully J. G., Rose D. L. 9 other authors 1989; A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification. J Bacteriol 171:6455–6467
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Whitcomb R. F. 1994; Systematics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes: a search for synthesis. Klieneberger-Nobel award lecture, 10th. Congress of IOM, Bordeaux; France:
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Wisotzkey J. D., Jurtshuk P. Jr, Fox G. E. 1990; PCR amplification of 16 rDNA from lyophilized cell culture facilitate studies in microbial systematics. Curr Microbiol 21:325–327
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Woese C. R. 1987; Bacterial evolution. Microbiol Rev 51:221–271
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Woese C. R., Maniloff J., Zablen L. B. 1980; Phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas. Proc Nati Acad Sci USA 77:494–498
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Xu B. Y., Chen T.-A. 1996; Cranberry false blossom disease in New Jersey. Phytopathology 86:SI25
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Yoshikada N., Nakamura H., Sahashi N., Kubono T., Katsube K., Shoji T., Takahashi T. 1994; Amplification and nucleotide sequences of ribosomal protein and 16S rRNA genes of mycoplasma-like organism associated with paulownia witches’-broom. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 60:569–575
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Zhu S. F., Lee I.-M., Gundersen D. E., Zhang C. L., Hadidi A. 1996; Phytoplasmas associated with cherry lethal yellows and jujube witches'-broom in China represent a new Candidatus subspecies level taxon. IOM Lett 4:218
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Zreik L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Gamier M. 1995; Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches’-broom disease of lime and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:449–453
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-4-1153
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-4-1153
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error