1887

Abstract

DNA extracted from three papaya () plants, individually affected by dieback, yellow crinkle or mosaic diseases, was subjected to PCR using phytoplasma-specific primers to amplify the 16S rRNA gene plus 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Near-complete DNA sequences obtained for the three PCR amplimers were subjected to phylogenetic analyses and direct sequence comparison with other phytoplasma 16S rDNA and 16S-23S spacer region DNA sequences. The papaya yellow crinkle (PpYC) and papaya mosaic (PpM) sequences were identical to each other, but distinctly different from the papaya dieback (PpDB) sequence, showing 90.3% identity in the 16S rDNA and 87.8% identity in the 16S-23S spacer region DNA sequences. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences was calculated, in which PpYC and PpM are most closely related to the tomato big bud phytoplasma (TBB; 99.7% 16S rDNA sequence identity) from Australia, within subclade iii. This subclade consists of strains only reported occurring in the Southern Asian region and Australia, which indicates an Asian/Australasian origin. PpDB is most closely related to the yellow leaf phytoplasma from New Zealand (PYL; 99.9% identity) and the Australian grapevine yellows phytoplasma (AGY; 99.7% identity). These three phytoplasma strains form a distinct clade within subclade xii, which also includes the European strains STOL and VK as another distinct clade. The origin of the closely related but geographically separated AGY-like strains and STOL-like strains of subclade xii is unclear. It is proposed that phytoplasma strains PpDB, PYL and AGY be included in the previously described taxon ‘ Phytoplasma australiense’, and that PpYC PpM and TBB be assigned to a new taxon, ‘ Phytoplasma australasia’.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-3-941
1998-07-01
2024-07-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/48/3/ijs-48-3-941.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-3-941&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altschul S. F., Gish W., Miller W., Myers E. W., Lipman D. J. 1990; Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blackall L. L., Seviour E. M., Cunningham M. A., Seviour R. J., Hugenholtz P. 1994; Microthrix parvicella” is a novel, deep branching member of the actinomycetes subphylum. Syst Appl Microbiol 17:513–518
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bowyer J. W., Atherton J. G., Teakle D. S., Ahern G. A. 1969; Mycoplasma-like bodies in plants affected by legume little leaf, tomato big bud, and lucerne witches’ broom diseases. Aust J Biol Sci 22:271–274
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bradford D., Hugenholtz P., Seviour E. M., Cunningham M. A., Stratton H., Seviour R. J., Blackall L. L. 1996; 16S rRNA analysis of isolates obtained from gram-negative, filamentous bacteria micromanipulated from activated sludge. Syst Appl Microbiol 19:334–343
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Conde B., Ulyatt L., Pitkethley R. 1996; Occurrences of Australian papaya dieback, yellow crinkle and other diseases or disorders of papaya with similar symptoms recorded from the Northern Territory of Australia. Pac Assoc Trop Phytopathol Newsl 14:2–6
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Davis M. J., Kramer J. B., Ferwerda F. H., Brunner B. R. 1996; Association of a bacterium and not a phytoplasma with papaya bunchy top disease. Phytopathology 86:102–109
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Davis R. E., Dally E. L., Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M., Habili N. 1997; Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense,” a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:262–269
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Davis R. I., Schneider B., Gibb K. S. 1997; Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas in Australia. Aust J Agric Res 48:535–544
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Deng S., Hiruki C. 1991; Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and non-culturable Mollicutes. J Microbiol Methods 14:53–61
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dorsch M., Stackebrandt E. 1992; Some modifications in the procedure of direct sequencing of PCR amplified 16S rDNA. J Microbiol Methods 16:271–279
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Felsenstein J. 1985; Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Felsenstein J. 1993; phylip - Phylogeny Inference Package (version 3.5).
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Firrao G., Carrao, L, Gobbi E., Locci R. 1996; Molecular characterization of a phytoplasma causing phyllody in clover and other herbaceous hosts in Northern Italy. Eur J Plant Pathol 102:817–822
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gibb K. S., Persley D. M., Schneider B., Thomas J. E. 1996; Phytoplasmas associated with papaya diseases in Australia. Plant Dis 80:174–178
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gibb K. S., Schneider B., Padovan A. C. 1998; Differential detection and genetic relatedness of phytoplasma in papaya. Plant Pathol 47:325–332
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Glennie J. D., Chapman K. R. 1976; A review of dieback - a disorder of the papaw (Carica papaya L.) in Queensland. Qld J Agric Anim Sci 33:177–188
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gowanlock D. H., Greber R. S., Behncken G. M., Finlay J. 1976; Electron microscopy of mycoplasma-like bodies in several Queensland crop species. Aust Plant Pathol Soc Newsl 5:(suppl.) abstract 223
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Greber R. S. 1966; Identification of the virus causing papaw yellow crinkle with tomato big bud virus by transmission tests. Qld J Agric Anim Sci 23:147–153
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M., Rehner S. A., Davis R. E., Kingsbury D. T. 1994; Phylogeny of mycoplasmalike organisms (phytoplasmas): a basis for their classification. J Bacteriol 176:5244–5254
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gundersen D. E., Lee I.-M., Schaff D. A., Harrison N. A., Chang C. J., Davis R. E., Kingsbury D. T. 1996; Genomic diversity and differentiation among phytoplasma strains in 16S rRNA groups I (aster yellows and related phytoplasmas) and III (X- disease and related phytoplasmas). Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:64–75
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kuske C. R., Kirkpatrick B. C. 1992; Phylogenetic relationships between the western aster yellows mycoplasmalike organism and other prokaryotes established by 16S rRNA gene sequence. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:226–233
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lane D. J. 1991; 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics pp. 115175 Edited by Stackebrandt E., Goodfellow M. Chichester: Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Larsen N., Olsen G. J., Maidak B. L., McCaughey M. J., Overbeek R., Macke T. J., Marsh T. L., Woese C. R. 1993; The ribosomal database project. Nucleic Acids Res 21:3021–3023
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lee L.-M., Davis R. E. 1992; Mycoplasmas which infect plants and insects. In Mycoplasmas: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis pp. 379–390 Edited by Maniloff J., McElhaney R. N., Finch L. R., Baseman J. B. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lee L.-M., Hammond R. W., Davis R. E., Gundersen D. E. 1993; Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology 83:834–842
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Liefting L. W., Andersen M. T., Beever R. E., Gardner R. C., Forster R. L. S. 1996; Sequence heterogeneity in the two 16S rRNA genes of Phormium yellow leaf phytoplasma. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:3133–3139
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lim P.-O., Sears B. B. 1989; 16S rRNA sequence indicates that plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms are evolution- arily distinct from animal mycoplasmas. J Bacteriol 171:5901–5906
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Liu B., White D. T., Walsh K. B., Scott P. T. 1996; Detection of phytoplasmas in dieback, yellow crinkle, and mosaic diseases of papaya using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Aust J Agric Res 47:387–394
    [Google Scholar]
  29. McCoy R. E., Caudwell A., Chang C. J. 15 other authors 1989; Plant diseases associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. In The Mycoplasmas vol. 5 pp. 545–640 Edited by Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Marcone C., Ragozzino A., Schneider B., Lauer U., Smart C. D., Seemiiller E. 1996; Genetic characterization and classification of two phytoplasmas associated with spartium witches’- broom disease. Plant Dis 80:365–371
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Murray R. G. E., Schleifer K. H. 1994; Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:174–176
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Namba S., Oyaizu H., Kato S., Iwanami S., Tsuchizaki T. 1993; Phylogenetic diversity of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:461–467
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Padovan A. C., Gibb K. S., Daire X., Boudon-Padieu E. 1996; A comparison of the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows to other phytoplasmas in grapevine. Vitis 35:189–194
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Peterson R. A., Coates L. M., Persley D. M. 1993; Diseases of papaw (papaya). In Diseases of Fruit Crops pp. 7076 Edited by Persley D. M. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Primary Industries;
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schneider B., Ahrens U., Kirkpatrick B. C., Seemiiller E. 1993; Classification of plant-pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms using restriction-site analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA. J Gen Microbiol 139:519–527
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Schneider B., Cousin M. T., Klinkong S., Seemiiller E. 1995a; Taxonomic relatedness and phylogenetic positions of phytoplasmas associated with diseases of faba bean, sunnhemp, sesame, soybean, and eggplant. J Plant Dis Prot 102:225–232
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Schneider B., Seemiiller E., Smart C. D., Kirkpatrick B. C. 1995b; Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms or phytoplasmas. In Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology vol. 1 pp. 369380 Edited by Razin S., Tully J. G. San Diego: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Sears B. B., Kirkpatrick B. C. 1994; Unveiling the evolutionary relationships of plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. ASM News 60:307–312
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Seemiiller E., Schneider B., MSurer R. 8 other authors 1994; Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:440–446
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Simmonds J. H. 1965; Papaw diseases. Qld Agric J 91:666–677
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Smart C. D., Schneider B., Blomquist C. L., Guerra L. J., Harrison N. A., Ahrens U., Lorenz K.-H., Seemiiller E., Kirkpatrick B. C. 1996; Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:2988–2993
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Stackebrandt E., Charfreitag O. 1990; Partial 16S rRNA primary structure of five Actinomyces species: phylogenetic implications and development of an Actinomyces israelii- specific oligonucleotide probe. J Gen Microbiol 136:37–43
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Thompson J. D., Higgins D. G., Gibson T. J. 1994; clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tuily J. G. 1993; International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes. Minutes of the Interim Meetings, 1 and 2 August 1992, Ames, IA, USA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:394–397
    [Google Scholar]
  45. White D. T., Billington S. J., Walsh K. B., Scott P. T. 1997; DNA sequence analysis supports the association of phytoplasmas with papaya (Carica papaya) dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic. Australas Plant Pathol 26:28–36
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Zreik L., Carle P., Bov£ J. M., Garnier M. 1995; Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches’-broom disease of lime and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, “Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia”. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:449–453
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-3-941
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-3-941
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error