Strain C1is an anaerobic spirochaete that causes intestinal disease in chickens. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparisons have indicated that this spirochaete is a strain. In these investigations, various phenotypic and genomic properties useful for establishing a taxonomic identity for strain C1were studied. As determined by electron microscopy, cells of the spirochaete measured 8-11 × 0·22-0·34 μm and had a typical spirochaete ultrastructure. Each cell had 22–30 flagella. C1cells formed weakly β-haemolytic colonies on trypticase soy agar plates containing 5% bovine blood. The spirochaete reached maximum population densities of 10cells mlwith a 2–4 h population doubling time in brain heart infusion broth containing 10% calf serum (BHIS broth). C1cultures in BHIS broth were positive in tests for hippurate hydrolysis and negative for indole production. Glucosamine, , glucose, fructose, maltose and mannose were growth substrates for the spirochaete in heart infusion broth containing 7% calf serum (HS broth). During growth in HS broth beneath an 0/N (1:99) atmosphere, cells of the spirochaete consumed 02 and glucose and produced H, CO, acetate, butyrate and ethanol. Strain C1DNA had a G+C content of 24·6 mol%. Based on DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, the DNA of strain C1exhibited 24–39% relative reassociation with DNA of and These results indicate that chicken spirochaete strain C1has many phenotypic properties common to species and, based on DNA hybridization analysis, represents a unique species. For this new species the name is proposed, for which the type strain is C1(= ATCC 51933).


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