The phylogenetic relationships among the species of the genus were studied by comparing their 16S rRNA sequences. The species form a coherent phylogenetic cluster within the genera of the hyphal budding bacteria in the α-. The sequences of two strains of were obtained from DNAs extracted from nonviable freeze-dried cells, which are the only source of material available, and were found to be almost identical (level of similarity, 99.9%). Overall, the species are closely related, with sequence similarities ranging from 96.2 to 99.9%. is phylogenetically the most distantly related species and exhibits the lowest similarity (96.2%) with . Australian isolate sp. strain ACM 3067, , and are all very highly related, with similarities greater than 99%. sp. strain ACM 3067 is most closely related to (level of similarity, 99.6%) and (99.4%). These manganese-oxidizing species are more closely related to the iron-oxidizing species than to the other manganese-oxidizing species, . Taxonomic uncertainties resulting from the loss of the type culture of are discussed.


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