We characterized a microbial strain that was isolated from a hot spring at a geothermal area in Hakone, Japan. This isolate, whose lobed-shaped cells were about 1.0 μ in diameter, was a facultative chemolithoautotroph that required aerobic conditions for growth. The optimum pH was 3.0 (pH range, 1.0 to 4.0), and the optimum temperature was 70°C (temperature range, 50 to 80°C). Lithotrophically, this strain grew on elemental sulfur and reduced sulfur compounds. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38.4 mol%. This organism contained calditoglycerocaldarchaeol, which is characteristic of members of the . The levels of 16S rRNA sequence similarity between the new isolate and , and were less than 89.8%. Unlike , and , the new isolate utilized sugars and amino acids poorly as sole carbon sources, and the levels of DNA-DNA hybridization between the new isolate and these species were very low. Phenotypically, the new isolate was also distinct from the obligately lithotrophic organism . We concluded that the new organism belongs to a new species, for which we propose the name


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