The phylogenetic relationships among 30 mycolic acid-containing wall chemotype IV actinomycete strains and 12 strains belonging to allied taxa were examined by determining the amino acid sequences of the ribosomal AT-L30 proteins of these organisms. Sequencing 20 N-terminal amino acids of AT-L30 preparations revealed that the members of the genera containing mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes form two clusters; the first cluster contains the genera , and , and the second cluster contains the genera and . The genus was placed in a clade containing the genus . The data showed that is closely related phylogenetically to the genus . The phylogenetic clusters identified were entirely consistent with the proposal of Goodfellow that the family should encompass the mycolate-containing, cell wall type IV actinomycete genera , and . The genera and exhibited AT-L30 amino acid sequence characteristics intermediate between those of actinomycetes and those of typical eubacteria. The genera , and were each a taxon that consisted of phylogenetically coherent species. In contrast, the genera and are taxa that consist of phylogenetically distantly related species. In general, my results are consistent with previous 16S rRNA sequencing results, but significant differences were also found. My data, together with previous AT-L30 sequencing data, show that phylogenetic relationships among taxa can be determined by using markers other than the ribosomal gene sequences.


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