Strain CS1 (T = type strain) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic, urease-positive, spiral-shaped bacterium that was isolated from the gastric mucosa of a cat. Additional strains which possessed biochemical and ultrastructural characteristics similar to those of strain CS1 were isolated from the gastric mucosa of cats and dogs. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA of strain CS1 was 42.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA sequences of strain CS1, strain DS3 (a spiral-shaped isolate from a dog), and were determined by direct RNA sequencing, using a modified Sanger method. These sequences were compared with the 16S rRNA sequences of , and 11 species of campylobacters. A dendrogram was constructed based upon sequence similarities. Strains CS1 and DS3 were very closely related (level of similarity, 99.3%). Two major phylogenetic groups were formed; one group consisted of strains CS1 and DS3, and , and the other group contained the true campylobacters. The average level of similarity between members of these two groups was 84.9%. Within the first group, strains CS1 and DS3, , and formed a cluster of organisms with an interspecies similarity level of 94.5%. The phylogenetic positions of and were just outside this cluster. On the basis of the results of this study, we believe that strains CS1 (= ATCC 49179) and DS3 represent a new species of the genus , for which we propose the name .


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