A comprehensive study of the relationships of species by a polyphasic approach is described. Hybridizations were performed between labeled ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs) from , and several other organisms and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) from representative strains and many other gram-negative organisms. Five species, including the type species, constitute a separate rRNA branch in rRNA superfamily II, to which the genus should be restricted. The finer relationships among the different members of the rRNA branch were further defined by DNA:DNA hybridizations and comparative gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins. After comparison of our results with the previously available phenotypic data, we redefine the genus to contain , and ; we also create subsp. comb. nov. and subsp. comb. nov. for the former and , respectively. The following taxa are generically misnamed: , and . Together with and some misnamed strains, these three taxa constitute at least three separate rRNA branches in rRNA superfamily II. is also misnamed as it belongs in rRNA superfamily IV. and should be relegated to their real generic positions, and , respectively.


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