sp. nov vaisolated from feces of dogs and humans and from surface water. The organisms gave the key biochemical reactions typical of species, including greater metabolic activity at 25 to 28°C than at 36°C. can be distinguished from other yersiniae by its positive reactions in tests for citrate and sucrose and negative reactions in tests for indole, acetoin (Voges-Proskauer), and rhamnose. Two biogroups were found among seven strains investigated, one of which fermented raffinose and melibiose. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization tests (hydroxyapatite method) showed average levels of relatedness of 93% at a 60°C incubation temperature and 97% at 75°C. Labeled deoxyribonucleic acid showed 30% to 63% relatedness to all species except . The guanine-plus-cytosine contents of five tested strains were 48.7 to 49.4 mol%. All strains possessed O antigens not typable with antisera of the extended typing scheme of Wauters, but most of them had H antigens typical of biotype 1. Five tested strains belonged to lysotype X. strains were susceptible to most antimicrobial agents; resistance or intermediate susceptibility was observed for ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, penicillin, and sulfonamide. Calcium dependency, autoagglutination, and Congo red pigmentation tests, which are indicative of the presence of a virulence plasmid to , were negative in . The clinical significance for humans and animals is uncertain and requires further study. The type strain of sp. nov. is strain H 271-36/78 (= CDC 3022-85 = ATCC 43380).


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