Ten new species were characterized on the basis of biochemical reactions, antigens, cellular fatty acids, isoprenoid quinones, and deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness. Nine of the new species were isolated from the environment, and one, , was isolated from a bronchial biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with pneumonia. The species all exhibited the following biochemical reactions typical of the legionellae: growth on buffered cysteine-yeast extract agar, but not on blood agar; growth requirement for cysteine; gram negative; nitrate negative; urease negative; nonfermentative; catalase positive; production of a brown pigment on tyrosine-containing yeast extract agar; liquefaction of gelatin; and motility. was weakly positive for hydrolysis of hippurate; the other species were hippurate negative. , and exhibited bluish white autofluorescence. and exhibited red autofluorescence. The other species, , and did not autofluoresce bluish white or red. All species had cellular fatty acid contents qualitatively similar to those of previously described legionellae and had major amounts of ubiquinones with more than 10 isoprene units in the side chains. Each new species was serologically distinct from previously described species. As determined by the hydroxyapatite method at 60°C, two strains of were 100% related, and four strains of were 94 to 99% related. The other new species were represented by single strains. The levels of relatedness of the new species to each other and to previously described legionellae ranged from 1 to 67%. , and were less than 25% related to other species. and , and two red-autofluorescing species, were about 60% interrelated. (a non-autofluorescing species) was 34% related to was 64% related to . The three bluish white-autofluorescing species, , and , were most closely related to other bluish white-autofluorescing species, especially , and (35 to 67%).


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